Research Article

Cellular responses induced in vitro by iron (Fe) in a central nervous system cell line (U343MGa)

Published: May 13, 2013
Genet. Mol. Res. 12 (2) : 1554-1560 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4238/2013.May.13.9
Cite this Article:
(2013). Cellular responses induced in vitro by iron (Fe) in a central nervous system cell line (U343MGa). Genet. Mol. Res. 12(2): gmr2174. https://doi.org/10.4238/2013.May.13.9
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Abstract

Iron is the most important metallic chemical element on Earth. Poisoning caused by excessive iron in humans has been associated with pulmonary diseases including neoplasms caused by inhalation of iron oxides. The involvement of iron in neurodegenerative processes has already been described. DNA alterations are induced by iron and other chemical compounds containing this metal; however, the data are controversial and the mechanism by which iron induces mutagenesis remains unknown. This study assessed in vitro iron-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic responses in an astrocytic cell line. Short- and long-term cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated with the Cell Proliferation Kit II and micronucleus test, respectively. Results indicated that the highest concentration of iron sulfate tested was cytotoxic in long-term cytotoxic assays and increased micronucleus frequency in comparison to controls. The significant cytotoxicity observed here might be due to the intrinsic ability of iron to induce apoptosis and possible changes in cell cycle kinetics; the genotoxic effects are probably due to the oxidant properties of iron itself. This was the first study to investigate the induction of micronuclei by iron in central nervous system cells.

Iron is the most important metallic chemical element on Earth. Poisoning caused by excessive iron in humans has been associated with pulmonary diseases including neoplasms caused by inhalation of iron oxides. The involvement of iron in neurodegenerative processes has already been described. DNA alterations are induced by iron and other chemical compounds containing this metal; however, the data are controversial and the mechanism by which iron induces mutagenesis remains unknown. This study assessed in vitro iron-induced cytotoxic and genotoxic responses in an astrocytic cell line. Short- and long-term cytotoxicity and genotoxicity were evaluated with the Cell Proliferation Kit II and micronucleus test, respectively. Results indicated that the highest concentration of iron sulfate tested was cytotoxic in long-term cytotoxic assays and increased micronucleus frequency in comparison to controls. The significant cytotoxicity observed here might be due to the intrinsic ability of iron to induce apoptosis and possible changes in cell cycle kinetics; the genotoxic effects are probably due to the oxidant properties of iron itself. This was the first study to investigate the induction of micronuclei by iron in central nervous system cells.