Research Article

Association analysis of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women

Abstract

We investigated associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, FokI T>C (rs2228570), BsmI G>A (rs1544410), ApaI G>T (rs7975232), and TaqI T>C (rs731236), with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Three hundred and twenty postmenopausal women participated, who were classified according to World Health Organization criteria as non-osteoporotic (Non-OP; N = 88), osteopenic (Opn; N = 144), and osteoporotic (OP; N = 88). BMD measurements at the lumbar (L1-L4) spine and at the left and right femoral neck were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan probes. Genotype and allelic frequencies of the 4 VDR SNPs were similar among the 3 groups. Polymorphic allele frequencies were as follows: FokI (C) 0.53, 0.49, 0.56; BsmI (A) 0.26, 0.22, 0.23; ApaI (T) 0.43, 0.39, 0.44; TaqI (C) 0.27, 0.22, 0.23 for the Non-OP, Opn, and OP groups, respectively. Although no associations were found between the SNPs and BMD, based on the putative function of the FokI SNP, we constructed, for the first time, the haplotype with the 4 VDR SNPs, and found that the CGGT haplotype differed between the Non- OP and OP groups (21.8 vs 31.8%, P FokI SNP for the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.

We investigated associations between vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms, FokI T>C (rs2228570), BsmI G>A (rs1544410), ApaI G>T (rs7975232), and TaqI T>C (rs731236), with bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women. Three hundred and twenty postmenopausal women participated, who were classified according to World Health Organization criteria as non-osteoporotic (Non-OP; N = 88), osteopenic (Opn; N = 144), and osteoporotic (OP; N = 88). BMD measurements at the lumbar (L1-L4) spine and at the left and right femoral neck were obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan probes. Genotype and allelic frequencies of the 4 VDR SNPs were similar among the 3 groups. Polymorphic allele frequencies were as follows: FokI (C) 0.53, 0.49, 0.56; BsmI (A) 0.26, 0.22, 0.23; ApaI (T) 0.43, 0.39, 0.44; TaqI (C) 0.27, 0.22, 0.23 for the Non-OP, Opn, and OP groups, respectively. Although no associations were found between the SNPs and BMD, based on the putative function of the FokI SNP, we constructed, for the first time, the haplotype with the 4 VDR SNPs, and found that the CGGT haplotype differed between the Non- OP and OP groups (21.8 vs 31.8%, P FokI SNP for the development of osteoporosis in postmenopausal Mexican-Mestizo women.