Research Article

Proteomic response of Moniliophthora perniciosa exposed to pathogenesis-related protein-10 from Theobroma cacao

Abstract

TcPR-10, a member of the pathogenesis-related protein 10 family, was identified in EST library of interactions between Theobroma cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa. TcPR-10 has been shown to have antifungal and ribonuclease activities in vitro. This study aimed to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in M. perniciosa in response to TcPR-10 through a proteomic analysis. The fungal hyphae were subjected to one of four treatments: control treatment or 30-, 60- or 120-min treatment with the TcPR-10 protein. Two-dimensional maps revealed 191 differentially expressed proteins, 55 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. The proteins identified in all treatments were divided into the following classes: cell metabolism, stress response, zinc binding, phosphorylation mechanism, transport, autophagy, DNA repair, and oxidoreductases. The predominant class was stress-response proteins (29%), such as heat shock proteins; these proteins exhibited the highest expression levels relative to the control treatment and are known to trigger defense mechanisms against cytotoxic drugs as well as TcPR-10. Oxidoreductases (25%) were overexpressed in the control and in 30-min treatments but exhibited reduced expression at 120 min. These proteins are involved in the repair of damage caused by oxidative stress due to the contact with TcPR- 10. Consistent with the antifungal activity of TcPR-10, several proteins identified were related to detoxification, autophagy or were involved in mechanisms for maintaining fungal homeostasis, such as ergosterol biosynthesis. These results show that the sensitivity of the fungus to TcPR-10 involves several biochemical routes, clarifying the possible modes of action of this antifungal protein.

TcPR-10, a member of the pathogenesis-related protein 10 family, was identified in EST library of interactions between Theobroma cacao and Moniliophthora perniciosa. TcPR-10 has been shown to have antifungal and ribonuclease activities in vitro. This study aimed to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in M. perniciosa in response to TcPR-10 through a proteomic analysis. The fungal hyphae were subjected to one of four treatments: control treatment or 30-, 60- or 120-min treatment with the TcPR-10 protein. Two-dimensional maps revealed 191 differentially expressed proteins, 55 of which were identified by mass spectrometry. The proteins identified in all treatments were divided into the following classes: cell metabolism, stress response, zinc binding, phosphorylation mechanism, transport, autophagy, DNA repair, and oxidoreductases. The predominant class was stress-response proteins (29%), such as heat shock proteins; these proteins exhibited the highest expression levels relative to the control treatment and are known to trigger defense mechanisms against cytotoxic drugs as well as TcPR-10. Oxidoreductases (25%) were overexpressed in the control and in 30-min treatments but exhibited reduced expression at 120 min. These proteins are involved in the repair of damage caused by oxidative stress due to the contact with TcPR- 10. Consistent with the antifungal activity of TcPR-10, several proteins identified were related to detoxification, autophagy or were involved in mechanisms for maintaining fungal homeostasis, such as ergosterol biosynthesis. These results show that the sensitivity of the fungus to TcPR-10 involves several biochemical routes, clarifying the possible modes of action of this antifungal protein.