Research Article

Sequence characterization, polymorphism, and tissue expression profile of an effector immediate-early gene: activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein gene (Arc/Arg3.1) in swamp and river buffalo

Published: March 31, 2014
Genet. Mol. Res. 13 (1) : 2299-2309 DOI: 10.4238/2014.March.31.10

Abstract

The activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) has been implicated in experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, information regarding its coding gene in buffalo remains scarce. In this study, the full-length of Arc/Arg3.1 was isolated and characterized (accession No. JX491649) and genetic variations of six river buffalo and eight swamp buffalo were investigated. A tissue expression profile was obtained using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The coding region sequence of Arc/Arg3.1 contained 1191 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 396 amino acids with a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mw) of 5.4 and 45.2 kDa, respectively. Four polymorphisms (c.63T>C, c.228T>C, c.558G>A, and c.625G>C) were found in buffalo; however, only substitution c.625G>C was non-synonymous, leading to an amino acid change from Val to Leu at the 209th position of the Arc/Arg3.1 protein sequence. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that this substitution had no significant effect on Arc/Arg3.1 function (subPSEC = -1.4039, Pdeleterious = 0.1685), which indicated that Arc/Arg3.1 was highly conserved and functionally important in buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene is closely related to that of Bos taurus and Bos grunniens. The gene was moderately expressed in the hypophysis and the placenta; it was weakly expressed in the kidney, milk, mammary gland, cerebrum, lung, heart, rumen, fat, and uterus; and it was almost silent in the muscle, liver, and skin. These findings will provide further insights into the structure and function of the immediate-early gene in buffalo.

The activity-regulated cytoskeletal associated protein (Arc/Arg3.1) has been implicated in experience-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory formation. However, information regarding its coding gene in buffalo remains scarce. In this study, the full-length of Arc/Arg3.1 was isolated and characterized (accession No. JX491649) and genetic variations of six river buffalo and eight swamp buffalo were investigated. A tissue expression profile was obtained using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The coding region sequence of Arc/Arg3.1 contained 1191 nucleotides encoding a putative protein of 396 amino acids with a theoretical isoelectric point (pI) and molecular weight (Mw) of 5.4 and 45.2 kDa, respectively. Four polymorphisms (c.63T>C, c.228T>C, c.558G>A, and c.625G>C) were found in buffalo; however, only substitution c.625G>C was non-synonymous, leading to an amino acid change from Val to Leu at the 209th position of the Arc/Arg3.1 protein sequence. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that this substitution had no significant effect on Arc/Arg3.1 function (subPSEC = -1.4039, Pdeleterious = 0.1685), which indicated that Arc/Arg3.1 was highly conserved and functionally important in buffalo. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the gene is closely related to that of Bos taurus and Bos grunniens. The gene was moderately expressed in the hypophysis and the placenta; it was weakly expressed in the kidney, milk, mammary gland, cerebrum, lung, heart, rumen, fat, and uterus; and it was almost silent in the muscle, liver, and skin. These findings will provide further insights into the structure and function of the immediate-early gene in buffalo.