Research Article

Development of expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers for Chrysanthemum morifolium and closely related species

Published: July 13, 2015
Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (3) : 7578-7586 DOI: 10.4238/2015.July.13.1

Abstract

With the development of chrysanthemum breeding in recent years, an increasing number of wild species in genera related to Chrysanthemum were introduced to extend the genetic resources and facilitate the genetic improvement of chrysanthemums via hybridization. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for marker-assisted breeding and population genetic studies of chrysanthemum and closely related species. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases and cross-species transferable markers are considered to be a cost-effective means for developing sequence-based markers. In this study, 25 EST-SSRs were successfully developed from Chrysanthemum EST sequences for Chrysanthemum morifolium and closely related species. In total, 4164 unigene sequences were assembled from 7180 ESTs of chrysanthemum in GenBank, which were subsequently used to screen for the presence of microsatellites with the SSRIT software. The screening criteria were 8, 5, 4, and 3 repeating units for di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta- and higher-order nucleotides, respectively. Moreover, 310 SSR loci from 296 sequences were identified, and 198 primer pairs for SSR amplification were designed with the Primer Premier 5.0 software, of which 25 SSR loci showed polymorphic amplification in 52 species and varieties belonging to Chrysanthemum, Ajania, and Opisthopappus. The application of EST-SSR markers to the identification of intergeneric hybrids between Chrysanthemum and Ajania was demonstrated. Therefore, EST-SSRs can be developed for species that lack gene sequences or ESTs by utilizing ESTs of closely related species.

With the development of chrysanthemum breeding in recent years, an increasing number of wild species in genera related to Chrysanthemum were introduced to extend the genetic resources and facilitate the genetic improvement of chrysanthemums via hybridization. However, few simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are available for marker-assisted breeding and population genetic studies of chrysanthemum and closely related species. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in public databases and cross-species transferable markers are considered to be a cost-effective means for developing sequence-based markers. In this study, 25 EST-SSRs were successfully developed from Chrysanthemum EST sequences for Chrysanthemum morifolium and closely related species. In total, 4164 unigene sequences were assembled from 7180 ESTs of chrysanthemum in GenBank, which were subsequently used to screen for the presence of microsatellites with the SSRIT software. The screening criteria were 8, 5, 4, and 3 repeating units for di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta- and higher-order nucleotides, respectively. Moreover, 310 SSR loci from 296 sequences were identified, and 198 primer pairs for SSR amplification were designed with the Primer Premier 5.0 software, of which 25 SSR loci showed polymorphic amplification in 52 species and varieties belonging to Chrysanthemum, Ajania, and Opisthopappus. The application of EST-SSR markers to the identification of intergeneric hybrids between Chrysanthemum and Ajania was demonstrated. Therefore, EST-SSRs can be developed for species that lack gene sequences or ESTs by utilizing ESTs of closely related species.