Research Article

Synergistic effect of BMP9 and TGF-β in the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts

Published: July 13, 2015
Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (3) : 7605-7615 DOI: 10.4238/2015.July.13.4

Abstract

We investigated the synergistic effect of bone morphoge­netic protein 9 (BMP9) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b in the transformation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. We evalu­ated the effect of BMP9 and TGF-b on the induction of osteoblast for­mation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway-related pro­teins such as p38, extracellular receptor kinase 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were analyzed. The interactions between TGF-Smad and BMP-MAPK were also studied. BMP9 alone induced the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts and enhanced phos­phorylation of p38, extracellular receptor kinase 1/2, and JNK. TGF-b alone failed to induce transformation, but could increase the effect of BMP9. In this process the activation of Smad resulted in activation of the JNK pathway in the MAPK pathway. BMP9 induced osteogenesis of MSC differentiation through the MAKP pathway, while TGF-b contrib­uted to BMP9 enhancement through the Smad-JNK pathway.

We investigated the synergistic effect of bone morphoge­netic protein 9 (BMP9) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b in the transformation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. We evalu­ated the effect of BMP9 and TGF-b on the induction of osteoblast for­mation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway-related pro­teins such as p38, extracellular receptor kinase 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were analyzed. The interactions between TGF-Smad and BMP-MAPK were also studied. BMP9 alone induced the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into osteoblasts and enhanced phos­phorylation of p38, extracellular receptor kinase 1/2, and JNK. TGF-b alone failed to induce transformation, but could increase the effect of BMP9. In this process the activation of Smad resulted in activation of the JNK pathway in the MAPK pathway. BMP9 induced osteogenesis of MSC differentiation through the MAKP pathway, while TGF-b contrib­uted to BMP9 enhancement through the Smad-JNK pathway.