Research Article

Development of novel chloroplast microsatellite markers for Ginkgo biloba

Published: July 13, 2015
Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (3) : 7715-7720 DOI: 10.4238/2015.July.13.17

Abstract

Ginkgo biloba is considered to be a living fossil that can be used to understand the ancient evolutionary history of gymnosperms, but little attention has been given to the study of its population genetics, molecular phylogeography, and genetic resources assessment. Chloro­plast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers are powerful tools for genetic studies of plants. In this study, a total of 30 perfect cpSSRs of Ginkgo were identified and characterized, including di-, tri, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeats. Fifteen of 21 designed primer pairs were successfully amplified to yield specific polymerase chain reaction products from 16 Ginkgo cultivars. Polymorphic cpSSRs were further applied to determine the genetic variation of 116 individuals in 5 popu­lations of G. biloba. The results showed that 24 and 76% genetic varia­tion existed within and among populations of this species, respectively. These polymorphic and monomorphic cpSSR markers can be used to trace the origin and evolutionary history of Ginkgo.

Ginkgo biloba is considered to be a living fossil that can be used to understand the ancient evolutionary history of gymnosperms, but little attention has been given to the study of its population genetics, molecular phylogeography, and genetic resources assessment. Chloro­plast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers are powerful tools for genetic studies of plants. In this study, a total of 30 perfect cpSSRs of Ginkgo were identified and characterized, including di-, tri, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeats. Fifteen of 21 designed primer pairs were successfully amplified to yield specific polymerase chain reaction products from 16 Ginkgo cultivars. Polymorphic cpSSRs were further applied to determine the genetic variation of 116 individuals in 5 popu­lations of G. biloba. The results showed that 24 and 76% genetic varia­tion existed within and among populations of this species, respectively. These polymorphic and monomorphic cpSSR markers can be used to trace the origin and evolutionary history of Ginkgo.