Research Article

Development and use of single nucleotide polymorphism markers for candidate resistance genes in wild peanuts (Arachis spp)

Abstract

The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid of recent origin, with an AABB genome and low genetic diversity. Perhaps because of its limited genetic diversity, this species lacks resistance to a number of important pests and diseases. In contrast, wild species of Arachis are genetically diverse and are rich sources of disease resistance genes. Consequently, a study of wild peanut relatives is attractive from two points of view: to help understand peanut genetics and to characterize wild alleles that could confer disease resistance. With this in mind, a diploid population from a cross between two wild peanut relatives was developed, in order to make a dense genetic map that could serve as a reference for peanut genetics and in order to characterize the regions of the Arachis genome that code for disease resistance. We tested two methods for developing and genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for disease resistance; one is based on single-base primer extension methods and the other is based on amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. We found single-base pair extension to be an efficient method, suitable for high-throughput, single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping; it allowed us to locate five candidate genes for resistance on our genetic map.

The cultivated peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an allotetraploid of recent origin, with an AABB genome and low genetic diversity. Perhaps because of its limited genetic diversity, this species lacks resistance to a number of important pests and diseases. In contrast, wild species of Arachis are genetically diverse and are rich sources of disease resistance genes. Consequently, a study of wild peanut relatives is attractive from two points of view: to help understand peanut genetics and to characterize wild alleles that could confer disease resistance. With this in mind, a diploid population from a cross between two wild peanut relatives was developed, in order to make a dense genetic map that could serve as a reference for peanut genetics and in order to characterize the regions of the Arachis genome that code for disease resistance. We tested two methods for developing and genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes for disease resistance; one is based on single-base primer extension methods and the other is based on amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction. We found single-base pair extension to be an efficient method, suitable for high-throughput, single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping; it allowed us to locate five candidate genes for resistance on our genetic map.