Research Article

JNK pathway and relative transcriptional factor were involved in ginsenoside Rh2-mediated G1 growth arrest and apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells

Published: September 19, 2016
Genet. Mol. Res. 15(3): gmr9003 DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15039003

Abstract

Ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to have an anti-tumor effect on a wide range of cancers. A previous study has shown that ginsenoside Rh2 can inhibit the proliferation of the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line in a dose-dependent manner by activating caspase-8/3 activity to promote apoptosis. However, the association of the JNK signaling pathways and transcription factors with ginsenoside Rh2 in the suppression of non-small cell lung cancer has not yet been reported. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rh2 can activate the JNK/MAPKs signaling pathway and increase the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and ATF2. Ginsenoside Rh2 also reduced the expression of transcription factors E2F1 and c-Myc. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rh2 affected the expression levels of cyclin D1 and the CDK4 protein, which are key regulatory factors of the G1/S cyclin-dependent kinase. The anti-proliferative and induced apoptotic effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on A549 cell provide evidence to support the application of traditional Chinese medicine to lung cancer treatment.

Ginsenoside Rh2 has been shown to have an anti-tumor effect on a wide range of cancers. A previous study has shown that ginsenoside Rh2 can inhibit the proliferation of the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line in a dose-dependent manner by activating caspase-8/3 activity to promote apoptosis. However, the association of the JNK signaling pathways and transcription factors with ginsenoside Rh2 in the suppression of non-small cell lung cancer has not yet been reported. In this study, we found that ginsenoside Rh2 can activate the JNK/MAPKs signaling pathway and increase the phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and ATF2. Ginsenoside Rh2 also reduced the expression of transcription factors E2F1 and c-Myc. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rh2 affected the expression levels of cyclin D1 and the CDK4 protein, which are key regulatory factors of the G1/S cyclin-dependent kinase. The anti-proliferative and induced apoptotic effects of ginsenoside Rh2 on A549 cell provide evidence to support the application of traditional Chinese medicine to lung cancer treatment.