Research Article

Differential expression of trypsin-3 and phosrestin II genes in the main malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi, from the Brazilian Amazon region

Published: December 15, 2017
Genet. Mol. Res. 16(4): gmr16039852 DOI: 10.4238/gmr16039852


Anopheles darlingi is the most anthropophilic mosquito related to Plasmodium infection
of malaria, causing significant morbidity and mortality in South America. Pyrethroid chemical has been
used to control mosquitos. We analyzed the expression of trypsin-3 and phosrestin II genes implicated
to feeding and resistance to insecticides, immune response and sensory antenna mechanisms,
respectively, of larvae and adult of A. darlingi, through quantitative reverse transcription polymerase
chain reaction (qRT-PCR). We aimed to validate the similarity in nucleotide sequences of A. darlingi
RNA sequencing libraries by in silico, and qRT- PCR, owing to their possible effects on the ability to
spread disease. The expression of trypsin-3 and phosrestin II was higher in the first and second instar
larvae as compared with that in adults. These differentially expressed trypsin-3 and phosrestin II genes
do not provide us evidence that both genes participate in pyrethroid resistance. The signaling pathway
involving both genes requires further study. Preliminary phylogenetic relationships and the
accumulation of mutations analysis in both genes were also compared with trypsin and phosrestin
sequences of 15 and 17 other anopheline species, respectively, to obtain a mutational rate of 0.02 on
phylogenetic trees. Trypsin gene of A. darlingi and A. albimanus clustered into the same group and was
distinct from the species of A. gambiae complex and other anopheline. For phosrestin II, A. darlingi 
was separated from the remaining species from Africa, Asia, and Europe. Although the groups showed
low to moderate support, it is possible to infer that both genes may belong to two evolutionary groups:
one presents in the anopheline species of New World and other in the anopheline species of Old World,
and be useful for future studies.