Table of Contents | Genet. Mol. Res. 2016 (3)
Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) is a serious adverse reaction to anti-tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), encoded by the TXNRD1 gene, is an important enzyme involved in oxidant challenge. TXNRD1 plays a key role in regulating cell growth and transformation, and protects cells against oxidative damage. We investigated the association between TXNRD1 polymorphisms and ATDH susceptibility. In this prospective study, 280 newly diagnosed TB patients were followed-up for 3 months after beginning anti-TB therapy. Tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) of TXNRD1 were selected using Haploview 4.2 based on the HapMap database of the Chinese Han in Beijing (CHB) panel. Genotyping was performed using the MassARRAY platform. Of the 280 patients enrolled in this study, 33 were lost to follow-up, 24 had ATDH, and 223 were free from ATDH. After adjusting for sex, age, smoking status, and body mass index, there were no significant differences in the allele and genotype frequency distributions of TXNRD1 SNPs between the ATDH and non-ATDH groups (all P > 0.05). The haplotype analysis showed that haplotype TCAGCC was associated with an increased risk of ATDH susceptibility [P = 0.024, OR (95%CI) = 6.273 (1.023-38.485)]. Further stratified analyses showed that the haplotype TCAGCC was associated with ATDH susceptibility in female subjects [P = 0.036, OR (95%CI) = 5.711 (0.917-35.560)] and non-smokers [P = 0.029, OR (95%CI) = 6.008 (0.971-37.158)]. Our results suggest that TXNRD1 variants may favor ATDH susceptibility in females and non-smokers. Further studies are required to verify this association.
Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P T. chinensis var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P T. chinensis var. (P T. chinensis var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P T. chinensis var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.
The development of age-related cardiovascular disease is associated with the senescence of vascular cells. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. Primary VSMCs were cultured and divided into control, D-galactose (D-gal), Rg1-L, and Rg1-H groups, which were cultured without and with D-gal, and with low- and high-concentrations of Rg1, respectively. D-gal-induced cellular senescence was identified by b-galactosidase staining, and ultrastructural changes within the cells were observed. The expression of p16, p21, and p53 in the four groups of VSMCs was determined by western blotting, and the cell cycle was investigated by flow cytometry. Compared with the control group, there was an obvious change in the ultrastructure of VSMCs in the D-gal group, and the proportion of b-galactosidase-positive cells was significantly increased (P INK4a/Rb and p53-p21Cip1/Waf1 signaling pathways during the cell cycle.
Polymorphisms in candidate genes can produce significant and favorable changes in the phenotype, and therefore are useful for the identification of the best combination of favorable variants for marker-assisted selection. In the present study, an assessment to evaluate the effect of 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes on live weight traits of registered Brahman cattle was performed. Data from purebred bulls were used in this assessment. The dataset included birth (BW), weaning (WW), and yearling (YW) weights. A panel of 11 SNP markers, selected by their formerly reported or apparent direct and indirect association with live weight traits, was included in an assessment previously confirming their minimum allele frequency (
Buffalo are characteristic livestock of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, but their low reproductive capacity necessitates the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We investigated the effects of RG108 on DNA methylation in buffalo adult fibroblasts, and on subsequent SCNT embryo development. RG108 treatment (0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mM) had no effect on cell morphology, viability, or karyotype (2n = 48), and cell growth followed a typical “S” curve. Immunohistochemistry showed that relative DNA methylation gradually decreased as RG108 concentration increased, and was significantly lower in the 20 and 100 mM groups compared to the 0, 5, and 10 mM treatments (0.94 ± 0.03 and 0.92 ± 0.05 vs 1.0 ± 0.02, 0.98 ± 0.05, and 0.98 ± 0.09, respectively; P DNMT1 gene expression of fibroblasts administered 10, 20, and 100 mM RG108 was significantly lower than those in the 0 and 5 mM groups (0.2 ± 0.05, 0.18 ± 0.07, and 0.3 ± 0.09 vs 1.0 ± 0.12 and 1.4 ± 0.12, respectively; P vs 15.3 ± 3.4%; P
The slender shiner Pseudopungtungia tenuicorpa (Cypriniformes; Cyprinidae; Gobioninae) is an endangered freshwater fish species endemic to Korea. The current strategies for its conservation involve the study of population genetic characters and identification of management units. These strategies require suitable molecular markers to study genetic diversity and genetic structure. Here, we developed nine polymorphic microsatellite markers for P. tenuicorpa for the first time by applying an enrichment method from a size-selected genomic library. The developed microsatellite markers produced a total of 101 alleles (average 11.2). The observed and expected heterozygosities averaged 0.805 and 0.835, respectively. Among the nine identified markers, five markers showed successful amplification across five related Korean Gobioninae species. Thus, the microsatellite markers developed in this study will be useful to establish conservation strategies for both P. tenuicorpa and other related species.
The sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 2 gene (SREBF2) plays an important role in regulating lipid homeostasis. To reveal the genetic factors that underlie carcass fat deposition in chickens, we cloned the coding DNA sequence of chicken SREBF2, investigated SREBF2 mRNA expression levels in various tissues, detected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the exon regions of the gene, and conducted association analyses between single markers/haplotypes and carcass traits. The entire 2859-bp cDNA sequence of chicken SREBF2 that encoded 952 amino acids was obtained and characterized. SREBF2 mRNA was highly expressed in the uropygial gland, followed by the liver, breast muscle, and leg muscle. Ten SNPs were detected, and four (g.49363077T>A, g.49357503C>T, g.49355533G>A, and g.49354641G>A) were novel. When analyzing the associations between the single mutations and carcass traits, significant differences were found in three SNPs and g.49357915G>A was highly significantly associated with most carcass traits, except for abdominal fat weight and sebum thickness. In addition, haplotype combinations that were constructed using the SREBF2 SNPs were associated with breast muscle weight. Chickens with the combined genotype H21H21 had the highest live weight, carcass weight, eviscerated weight, and semi-eviscerated weight values. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study conducted on chicken SREBF2 polymorphisms, which are predictive of the genetics that underlie the economic performance of chickens.
Medicinal plants such as Aloe arborescens Miller and Aloe barbadensis Miller are used by the general population to treat various diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimutagenicity of these two species using a methG1 system in Aspergillus nidulans and the comet assay in rats. The animals were treated with the plants at concentrations of 360 and 720 mg/kg body weight (1 and 2, respectively) by gavage for 14 days, followed by the administration of etoposide on treatment day 8. Blood samples were prepared for analysis of DNA damage. For the test in A. nidulans, the biA1methG1 lineage conidia were treated for 4 h with both plant species at concentrations of 4 and 8% (w/v). Then, they were washed and plated on a selective medium for frequency analysis of survival and mutation. The results of the comet assay showed that both plants were antigenotoxic compared to etoposide, which was not a typical response of methG1 systems, where only the highest concentration of plant extracts usually exhibit beneficial effects. This study demonstrates the potential antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of the Aloe plants tested and, therefore, supports their use as a form of preventive therapy and for health maintenance by the population.
We carried out a case-control study to examine the relationship between the ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) gene polymorphisms C1236T, G2677T, and C3435T and risk of acute leukemia in a Chinese population. Between May 2013 and April 2015, we recruited 164 acute leukemia patients and 285 healthy controls, and determined polymorphism genotypes by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis, we observed that in comparison to the wild-type sequence, the TT genotype [odds ratio (OR) = 2.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-4.10; P = 0.01] and the T allele (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.05-1.86; P = 0.02) of ABCB1 G2677T were associated with acute leukemia susceptibility. The TT genotype (OR = 2.03, 95%CI = 1.11- 3.69; P = 0.01) and the T allele (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.05-1.85; P = 0.02) of the C3435T polymorphism also increased acute leukemia risk compared to the wild-type form. However, no significant relationship was established between the ABCB1 C1236T variant and this disease. Our results suggest that the ABCB1 G2677T and C3435T sequence variations may affect susceptibility to acute leukemia.
Nematodes are important pests of soybean throughout the world and cause high yield losses. As a control strategy, the identification of resistance genes is an important aim of breeding studies. Plants possess resistance genes (R), which are responsible for the recognition of pathogens and activation of the defense system. R genes and resistance gene analogs (RGAs) possess conserved domains, from which nucleotide-binding site is the most common. Using degenerate primers originating from these domains, it is possible to identify and isolate sequences of R and RGA genes. In this study, soybean genotypes resistant to the nematodes Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, and M. enterolobii were compared by the use of RGAs and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Forty-six soybean genotypes were studied, including plant introductions (PIs), commercial crops, and source of resistance genotypes. Thirteen combinations of RGA primers and different SSRs linked to QTLs were used to confirm resistance to soybean cyst nematodes (SCN). Fragments associated with resistance to the studied nematodes were amplified in the source of resistance and PI genotypes. RGA markers were efficient at distinguishing groups of genotypes that were resistant and susceptible to Meloidogyne spp and SCN. Combinations of specific primers were identified through their ability to amplify nucleotide sequences from possible resistance candidate genes. SSR markers contributed to the analysis of SCN race specificity, showing that the QTLs identified by these markers are distinct from those identified by RGA markers.
The current study aims to evaluate the macroscopic and histological effects of autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and platelet-rich plasma on knee articular cartilage regeneration in an experimental model of osteoarthritis. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: control group, platelet-rich plasma group, autologous MSC undifferentiated group, and autologous MSC differentiated into chondrocyte group. Collagenase solution was used to induce osteoarthritis, and treatments were applied to each group at 6 weeks following osteoarthritis induction. After 60 days of therapy, the animals were euthanized and the articular surfaces were subjected to macroscopic and histological evaluations. The adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation potentials of MSCs were evaluated. Macroscopic and histological examinations revealed improved tissue repair in the MSC-treated groups. However, no difference was found between MSC-differentiated and undifferentiated chondrocytes. We found that MSCs derived from adipose tissue and platelet-rich plasma were associated with beneficial effects in articular cartilage regeneration during experimental osteoarthritis.
The mammalian hair follicle (HF) is a unique, highly regenerative organ with a distinct developmental cycle. Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) HFs can be divided into two categories based on structure and development time: primary and secondary follicles. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the primary and secondary HFs of cashmere goats, the RNA sequencing of six individuals from Arbas, Inner Mongolia, was performed. A total of 617 DEGs were identified; 297 were upregulated while 320 were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the main functions of the upregulated genes were electron transport, respiratory electron transport, mitochondrial electron transport, and gene expression. The downregulated genes were mainly involved in cell autophagy, protein complexes, neutrophil aggregation, and bacterial fungal defense reactions. According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, these genes are mainly involved in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine, RNA polymerization, and the MAPK signaling pathway, and were enriched in primary follicles. A microRNA-target network revealed that secondary follicles are involved in several important biological processes, such as the synthesis of keratin-associated proteins and enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. In summary, these findings will increase our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of HF development and cycling, and provide a basis for the further study of the genes and functions of HF development.
We investigated the diversity of ectomycorrhiza associated with the endemic Picea crassifolia in Mount Helan National Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia, China. Toward this objective, we conducted morphological and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae in soil cubes taken from pure P. crassifolia stands. Eleven types of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) organisms were separated, briefly described, and identified. Nine morphotypes belonged to the phylum Basidiomycotina [Amphinema byssoides, Cortinarius sp (cf. limonius), Cortinarius vernus, Inocybe cf. nitidiscula, Inocybe sp 1, Sebacina incrustans, Sebacina sp, Suillus luteus, and Piceirhiza tuberculata x Picea crassifolia (comb. Nov.)], and two morphotypes to the phylum Ascomycotina (Cenococcum geophilum and Helvella sp). The diversity of ECM organisms in P. crassifolia was lower than that reported by other studies on spruce or pine forests, or on sporocarp diversity in the high-mountain forests of China. Most of the fungi in the rhizosphere did not correspond to species previously recorded as sporocarps above ground. Here, several new ectomycorrhiza morphotypes are proposed and described. We also confirmed the ectomycorrhizal status of the genus Sebacina (order Sebacinales).
In this study, we investigated the role of ADH2 Arg47His and ALDH2 Glu487Lys genetic polymorphisms in the development of Parkinson’s disease in a Chinese population. Between January 2013 and May 2014, 115 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 214 healthy controls were recruited in our study. Genotyping of ADH2 Arg47His and ALDH2 Glu487Lys polymorphisms was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. In the dominant model, the GA + AA genotype of ALDH2 Glu487Lys was found to be significantly associated with elevated risk of Parkinson’s disease when compared with the GG genotype [odds ratio = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-2.84]. In the recessive model, the AA genotype of ALDH2 Glu487Lys showed a 4.87-fold increase (95%CI = 1.54-18.03) in the risk of Parkinson’s disease when compared to the GG and GA genotypes. However, no significant association was found between the ADH2 Arg47His polymorphism and risk of Parkinson’s disease in the co-dominant, dominant, or recessive models. In conclusion, our study suggests that the ALDH2 polymorphism could influence the development of Parkinson’s disease in the Chinese population studied here.
Caves are considered major touristic attractions. The management plans of many such caves include limiting the number of visitors; however, the human impact on microbial communities within caves is rarely considered. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of human-transferred organic matter on the fungal microcosms growing on cave sediments. Samples were collected from a Brazilian limestone cave and cultured with 0.25 or 0.5% 1:1 (w/w) beef and yeast extract (simulating organic matter) under laboratory conditions. The contaminated fungal community was then evaluated at days 0, 30, 180, and 365 after inoculation by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. We observed changes in the fungal communities with time, as well as the concentration of added organic matter, compared to the control fungal communities. Additionally, the contaminated microcosms showed a greater number of operational taxonomic units compared to the controls. These findings suggest that tourist activity could cause fungal outbreaks of possible human pathogens, demonstrating the importance of fungal monitoring in these caves.