Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are a family of dioxygenases, which specifically catalyze the cleavage of conjugated double bonds in carotenoids and apocarotenoids in plants. In this study, genome-wide analysis of CCO genes in pepper plants was performed using bioinformatic methods. At least 11 members of the CCO gene family were identified in the pepper genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that pepper and tomato CCO genes could be divided into two groups (CCDs and NCEDs).
In this study, we examined phytoene synthetase (PSY), the first key limiting enzyme in the synthesis of carotenoids and catalyzing the formation of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate in terpenoid biosynthesis. We used known amino acid sequences of the PSY gene in tomato plants to conduct a genome-wide search and identify putative candidates in 34 sequenced plants. A total of 101 homologous genes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PSY evolved independently in algae as well as monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.
In Brazil, the center of cassava origin, cassava landraces have acquired through their domestication a large diversity in relation to many economic traits such as high content of carotenoids and excellent palatability among other characters. One of these clones, which has been grown by indigenous Brazilian farmers and is now being maintained in the University of Brasília gene bank, showed a high level of lycopene content (5 mg/kg viz. a viz. zero in common cultivars, and 12-20 mg/kg in tomato, a lycopene-rich vegetable).