Cell differentiation

Synergistic effect of BMP9 and TGF-β in the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts

X. L. Li, Liu, Y. B., Ma, E. G., Shen, W. X., Li, H., and Zhang, Y. N., Synergistic effect of BMP9 and TGF-β in the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, vol. 14, pp. 7605-7615, 2015.

We investigated the synergistic effect of bone morphoge­netic protein 9 (BMP9) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-b in the transformation of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. We evalu­ated the effect of BMP9 and TGF-b on the induction of osteoblast for­mation. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway-related pro­teins such as p38, extracellular receptor kinase 1/2, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were analyzed. The interactions between TGF-Smad and BMP-MAPK were also studied.

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