Variation in the chloroplast DNA sequence is useful for plant phylogenetic studies. However, the number of variable sequences provided by chloroplast DNA for suggested genes or genomic regions in plant phylogenetic analyses is often inadequate.
Ginkgo biloba is considered to be a living fossil that can be used to understand the ancient evolutionary history of gymnosperms, but little attention has been given to the study of its population genetics, molecular phylogeography, and genetic resources assessment. Chloroplast simple sequence repeat (cpSSR) markers are powerful tools for genetic studies of plants. In this study, a total of 30 perfect cpSSRs of Ginkgo were identified and characterized, including di-, tri, tetra-, penta-, and hexanucleotide repeats.
A striking characteristic of modern sugarcane is that all sugarcane cultivars (Saccharum spp) share a common cytoplasm from S. officinarum. To explore the potential value of S. spontaneum cytoplasm, new Saccharum hybrids with an S. spontaneum cytoplasm were developed at the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Sugarcane Research Laboratory, through a combination of conventional and molecular breeding approaches.