Comet assay

Cytogenetic toxicity and gonadal effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone in Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae) and Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae)

C. L. G. Rivero-Wendt, Miranda-Vilela, A. L., Ferreira, M. F. N., Borges, A. M., and Grisolia, C. K., Cytogenetic toxicity and gonadal effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone in Astyanax bimaculatus (Characidae) and Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae), vol. 12, pp. 3862-3870, 2013.

The synthetic hormone, 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT), is used in fish hatcheries to induce male monosex. Androgenic effects on various fish species have been reported; however, few studies have assessed possible genotoxic effects, although there are concerns about such effects in target and non-target species. We evaluated genotoxic and gonadal effects of MT in adult tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Astyanax bimaculatus (a common native non-target fish in Brazil). Fish were fed for 28 days with ration containing MT (60 mg/L), a normal dose used in fish farming.

Lack of genotoxicity in Astyanax bimaculatus and Oreochromis niloticus of 17α-methyltestosterone used in fish hatcheries to produce male monosex populations

C. L. G. Rivero-Wendt, Miranda-Vilela, A. L., Ferreira, M. F. N., Amorim, F. S., da Silva, V. A. G., Louvandini, H., and Grisolia, C. K., Lack of genotoxicity in Astyanax bimaculatus and Oreochromis niloticus of 17α-methyltestosterone used in fish hatcheries to produce male monosex populations, vol. 12, pp. 5013-5022, 2013.

17α-Methyltestosterone (MT) is widely used in fish hatcheries of many countries to produce male monosex populations. Its genotoxic risk to fish species is not well known and studies in other in vivo models are still inconclusive. MT was tested for genotoxicity in the fish species Oreochromis niloticus (tilapia), a target species, and Astyanax bimaculatus (lambari), a native non-target species.

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Labiatae) essential oil in mammalian cells in vivo

E. L. Maistro, Mota, S. F., Lima, E. B., Bernardes, B. M., and Goulart, F. C., Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Labiatae) essential oil in mammalian cells in vivo, vol. 9, pp. 2113-2122, 2010.

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) oil is widely used by the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries as a fragrance component of soaps, creams, lotions, and perfumes. Although it is popular, potential harmful side-effects of the oil have been described. We investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of essential oil of R. officinalis in rodents, using comet, micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. The animals were treated by gavage with one of three dosages of rosemary oil (300, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg).

In vitro genotoxicity assessment of caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids

E. L. Maistro, Angeli, J. P. F., Andrade, S. F., and Mantovani, M. S., In vitro genotoxicity assessment of caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids, vol. 10, pp. 1130-1140, 2011.

Phenols are a large and diverse class of compounds, many of which occur naturally in a variety of food plants; they exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, hepatoprotective, antithrombotic, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and vasodilatory actions. We examined the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of three phenolic compounds: caffeic, cinnamic and ferulic acids, using the comet and micronucleus assays in vitro. Drug-metabolizing rat hepatoma tissue cells (HTCs) were used.

Absence of mutagenicity effects of Psidium cattleyanum Sabine (Myrtaceae) extract on peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice

T. D. A. Costa, Vieira, S., Andrade, S. F., and Maistro, E. L., Absence of mutagenicity effects of Psidium cattleyanum Sabine (Myrtaceae) extract on peripheral blood and bone marrow cells of mice, vol. 7, pp. 679-686, 2008.

Cattley guava (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine) is a native fruit of Brazil that is popular both as a sweet food and for its reputed therapeutic properties. We examined whether it could damage DNA using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) and the micronucleus test in leukocytes and in bone marrow cells of mice. P. cattleyanum leaf extract was tested at concentrations of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea was used as a positive control.

Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo

C. U. B. Andrade, Perazzo, F. F., and Maistro, E. L., Mutagenicity of the Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) fruit peel extract in mouse peripheral blood cells in vivo, vol. 7, pp. 725-732, 2008.

Plants are a source of many biologically active products and nowadays they are of great interest to the pharmaceutical industry. In the present study, the mutagenic potential of the Musa paradisiaca fruit peel extract was assessed by the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and micronucleus assays. Animals were treated orally with three different concentrations of the extract (1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight). Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 24 h after treatment for the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 h for the micronucleus test.

The mutagenic potential of Clusia alata (Clusiaceae) extract based on two short-term in vivo assays

A. C. G. Moura, Perazzo, F. F., and Maistro, E. L., The mutagenic potential of Clusia alata (Clusiaceae) extract based on two short-term in vivo assays, vol. 7, pp. 1360-1368, 2008.

We examined the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of a crude extract of Clusia alata (a potential medicinal plant) on peripheral leukocyte and bone marrow cells of mice, using the comet and chromosome aberration assays. Extracts at doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were administered by gavage, and a positive control, N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (50 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. Peripheral blood leukocytes were collected 4 and 24 h after the treatments for the comet assay, and bone marrow cells were collected 24 h after the treatments, for the chromosome aberration assay.

Antioxidant effect of haptoglobin phenotypes against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in human leukocytes

L. R. S. Moreira, Miranda-Vilela, A. L., Silva, I. C. R., Akimoto, A. K., Klautau-Guimarães, M. N., and Grisolia, C. K., Antioxidant effect of haptoglobin phenotypes against DNA damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in human leukocytes, vol. 8, pp. 284-290, 2009.

Human haptoglobin is classified into three major phenotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2; there are two autosomal alleles Hp*1 and Hp*2, and the Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp*1F and Hp*1S. Haptoglobin acts as an antioxidant, preventing hemoglobin-driven oxidative damage. We used the comet assay to examine oxidative damage to DNA induced by hydrogen peroxide in human leukocytes; we also looked for differences in the antioxidant capacity of haptoglobin subtypes.

Genotoxicity testing of Ambelania occidentalis (Apocynaceae) leaf extract in vivo

L. S. Castro, Perazzo, F. F., and Maistro, E. L., Genotoxicity testing of Ambelania occidentalis (Apocynaceae) leaf extract in vivo, vol. 8, pp. 440-447, 2009.

Ambelania occidentalis is routinely used in folk medicine for treating gastrointestinal disorders, even though there have been no safety trials. We evaluated the genotoxic potential of hydro-alcoholic extracts of this plant in mice; induced DNA damage was assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes and micronucleus induction was assessed in polychromatic erythrocytes from bone marrow. The extract was administered by an oral route at single doses of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. N-nitroso-N-ethylurea was used as a positive control.

Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays

F. M. V. Silva, Leite, M. F., Spadaro, A. C. C., Uyemura, S. A., and Maistro, E. L., Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays, vol. 8, pp. 1085-1092, 2009.

Tamarindus indica has been used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic, a digestive aid, and a carminative, among other uses. Currently, there is no information in the toxicology literature concerning the safety of T. indica extract. We evaluated the clastogenic and/or genotoxic potential of fruit pulp extract of this plant in vivo in peripheral blood and liver cells of Wistar rats, using the comet assay, and in bone marrow cells of Swiss mice, using the micronucleus test.

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