Physical training induces beneficial adaptations; however, exhausting exercise increases reactive oxygen species generation, resulting in damage to DNA and tissues. Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense), a fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, contains a carotenoid-rich oil. We investigated whether pequi oil had antioxidant effects in runners. Evaluations were made after outdoor races before and after ingestion of 400 mg pequi-oil capsules for 14 days.
Rotenone is a heterocyclic compound widely used as an insecticide, acaricide and piscicide. Its toxicity is mainly caused by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory processes and ATP production, resulting in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Reactive oxygen species can interact with DNA, RNA and proteins, leading to cell damage, followed by death. We used the Comet assay, and we analyzed chromosome aberrations, in order to evaluate the genotoxic and clastogenic effects of rotenone on the different phases of the cell cycle.
The micronucleus (MN) test and the alkaline single cell gel or comet assay were applied to exfoliated cells of the buccal mucous in order to evaluate the genotoxic risk associated with occupational exposure of 10 storage battery renovation workers, and 10 car painters, with age matched controls, in Pelotas, RS, in southern Brazil. In the MN test, 2000 exfoliated buccal cells were analyzed for each individual, while 100 cells were examined in the comet assay. In the comet test, both comet tail length and a damage index were calculated.
The chemical compound temephos (0,0,0',0'-tetrametyl-0,0'-thiodi-p-phenylene phosphorothioate) is an organophosphorous pesticide that has been used in Brazil since 1967 in control campaigns against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the vector of dengue and yellow fever. We used single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), SOS/umu and Ames/Salmonella assays to test the toxicity and mutagenicity of temephos. Temephos was genotoxic in the SCGE assay, inducing severe DNA lesions (type IV lesions) at doses above 1.34 µM.