Strong evidence indicates that tumor growth can be actively controlled by the immune system, and interleukins (ILs) are known to play an influential role in immune response regulation. Moreover, inflammatory cytokines are significantly involved in lymphoma pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate serum levels of IL-4 and IL-18 in aggressive non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (A-NHL) patients and their relationship with prognostic parameters and therapy outcome.
Acute rejection (AR) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) is one of the major complications that leads to chronic graft dysfunction. It has been reported that the polymorphisms in some cytokine genes are associated with human liver allograft rejection. This study mainly investigated the associations between polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin-10 (IL10), transforming growth factor-b1 (TGFB1), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF), and the risk of AR recurrence.