Cytotoxicity

Anticancer activity of Bombyx batryticatus ethanol extract against the human tumor cell line HeLa

W. P. Wu, Cao, J., Wu, J. Y., Chen, H., and Wang, D., Anticancer activity of Bombyx batryticatus ethanol extract against the human tumor cell line HeLa, vol. 14, pp. 79-88, 2015.

Anticancer activity of Bombyx batryticatus ethanol extract (BBE) against HeLa cells was studied using cell viability, DNA fragmentation, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses. The BBE inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. The MTT assay indicated that the BBE induced cytotoxicity in HeLa cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. When HeLa cells were treated for 48 h, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for the BBE was 1.564 mg/mL.

In vitro cytotoxicity screening of wild plant extracts from Saudi Arabia on human breast adenocarcinoma cells

M. A. Ali, M. Farah, A., Al-Hemaid, F. M., and Abou-Tarboush, F. M., In vitro cytotoxicity screening of wild plant extracts from Saudi Arabia on human breast adenocarcinoma cells, vol. 13, pp. 3981-3990, 2014.

This study investigated the in vitro anticancer activities of a total of 14 wild angiosperms collected in Saudi Arabia. The cytotoxic activity of each extract was assessed against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using the MTT assay. Among the plants screened, the potential cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract of Lavandula dentata (Lamiaceae) was identified, and we analyzed its anticancer potential by testing antiproliferative and apoptotic activity. Our results clearly show that ethanolic extract of L.

Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae)

G. A. Asare, Bugyei, K., Sittie, A., Yahaya, E. S., Gyan, B., Adjei, S., Addo, P., Wiredu, E. K., Adjei, D. N., and Nyarko, A. K., Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae), vol. 11, pp. 100-111, 2012.

Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract.

Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytes from Scapania verrucosa Heeg.

J. - G. Wu, Peng, W., Zeng, P. - Y., Wu, Y. - B., Yi, J., and Wu, J. - Z., Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytes from Scapania verrucosa Heeg., vol. 12, pp. 916-924, 2013.

We evaluated the antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of endophytes isolated from Scapania verrucosa Heeg., which belongs to the liverwort class. A total of 49 endophytic fungi were isolated from S. verrucosa and classified into seven genera and one family in our previous study. In this study, the cytotoxic activity of the endophytes was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, seven of which showed potent toxicity against the brine shrimp with 50% lethal concentration values less than 20 μg/mL.

Cellular responses induced in vitro by iron (Fe) in a central nervous system cell line (U343MGa)

D. D. F. A. Alcântara, Ribeiro, H. F., Matos, L. A., Sousa, J. M. C., Burbano, R. R., and Bahia, M. O., Cellular responses induced in vitro by iron (Fe) in a central nervous system cell line (U343MGa), vol. 12, pp. 1554-1560, 2013.

Iron is the most important metallic chemical element on Earth. Poisoning caused by excessive iron in humans has been associated with pulmonary diseases including neoplasms caused by inhalation of iron oxides. The involvement of iron in neurodegenerative processes has already been described. DNA alterations are induced by iron and other chemical compounds containing this metal; however, the data are controversial and the mechanism by which iron induces mutagenesis remains unknown.

Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice

C. C. Carneiro, Silva, C. R., Menezes, A. C. S., Pérez, C. N., and Chen-Chen, L., Assessment of genotoxic, cytotoxic, and protective effects of Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don. stem bark fractions in mice, vol. 12, pp. 2167-2177, 2013.

Salacia crassifolia (Mart. Ex. Schult.) G. Don., popularly known in Brazil as "bacupari", "cascudo", and "saputá", is a shrub of the Celastraceae family that is unique to the Brazilian Cerrado region. In folk medicine, this plant has been mainly used to treat skin cancer and gastric ulcers. In the present study, the genotoxic, cytotoxic, antigenotoxic, and anticytotoxic effects of S. crassifolia stem bark fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydroalcoholic extracts) were evaluated using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test.

Cellular responses induced in vitro by pestheic acid, a fungal metabolite, in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100)

J. M. C. Sousa, Matos, L. A., Alcântara, D. F. A., Ribeiro, H. F., Santos, L. S., Oliveira, M. N., Brito-Junior, L. C., Khayat, A. S., Guimarães, A. C., Cunha, L. A., Burbano, R. R., and Bahia, M. O., Cellular responses induced in vitro by pestheic acid, a fungal metabolite, in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100), vol. 12, pp. 4106-4115, 2013.

There is a constant search for new cancer treatments that are less aggressive and economically affordable. In this context, natural products extracted from plants, fungi, and microorganisms are of great interest. Pestheic acid, or dihidromaldoxin, is a chlorinated diphenylic ether extracted from the phytopathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii (Amphisphaeriaceae). We assessed the cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects of pestheic acid in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100). A decrease in clonogenic survival was observed.

Modulatory effect of Palicourea coriacea (Rubiaceae) against damage induced by doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

D. C. S. Passos, Ferreira, H. D., Vieira, I. L. F. B., Nunes, W. B., Felício, L. P., Silva, E. M., Vale, C. R., Duarte, S. R., Silva, E. S., and Carvalho, S., Modulatory effect of Palicourea coriacea (Rubiaceae) against damage induced by doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, vol. 9, pp. 1153-1162, 2010.

Palicourea coriacea, popularly known as “douradinha”, is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado region used in folk medicine to treat kidney and urethral stones and kidney inflammation. We evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and possible antigenotoxic activities of an aqueous extract of P. coriacea on somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, using the somatic mutation and recombination test. We used third-stage larvae of D. melanogaster from a standard cross and a high bioactivation cross and tested 10 different doses of P.

N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity evaluation: a cytochrome P450 induction study in rat hepatocytes

C. A. F. Aiub, Gadermaier, G., Silva, I. O., Felzenszwalb, I., Pinto, L. F. R., Ferreira, F., and Eckl, P., N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity evaluation: a cytochrome P450 induction study in rat hepatocytes, vol. 10, pp. 2340-2348, 2011.

In rats, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induces tumors mainly in the liver. This could be because various enzymes are responsible for the metabolic activation of NDEA, besides the hepatic NDEA metabolizing enzyme, CYP2E1. We examined NDEA genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in primary cultures of female rat hepatocytes; we also looked at how it affected CYP mRNA expression. Single incubation with 0.9% NaCl resulted in a mean of 0.2% apoptotic cells, which doubled with 105 μg NDEA/mL. The frequency of necrosis with NDEA treatment was also doubled.

Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide

C. R. Oliveira-Martins and Grisolia, C. K., Determination of micronucleus frequency by acridine orange fluorescent staining in peripheral blood reticulocytes of mice treated topically with different lubricant oils and cyclophosphamide, vol. 6, pp. 566-574, 2007.

To ascertain whether used and re-refined lubricant oil absorbed through the skin can produce a genotoxic effect or cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, we examined the induction of micronucleated erythrocytes of peripheral blood after cutaneous application. Both re-refined and used lubricant oils showed a weak but significant induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes compared with control, while virgin oil did not show micronucleus induction.

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