The influence of ruminal acidosis on ruminal microbiology and metabolite production has received considerable attention, but little is known regarding the systemic manifestations that arise from ruminal acidosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is released in the gastrointestinal tract upon ingestion of high-grain or high-fat diets, and it has been implicated in the etiology of multiple energy- and lipid-related metabolic disturbances in ruminants. The liver plays a crucial role in the acute phase response to intruding pathogens.
This study aimed to determine whether feeding betaine to cows elevates their production performance during summer heat stress. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into 4 groups: the control group, which received a total mixed ration (TMR), and 3 experimental groups that received TMR blended with 10 g/day (group I), 15 g/day (group II), and 20 g/day (group III) betaine for 8 weeks. Milk and blood were sampled throughout the experimental period. The average maximum and minimum air temperatures were 28.3 and 24.1°C, respectively.
Mastitis affects the concentrations of potassium and sodium in milk. Since sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) is critical for maintaining the homeostasis of these two ions, and is involved in cell apoptosis and pathogenesis, we presumed that polymorphism of the ATP1A1 gene, which encodes the bovine Na+, K+-ATPase α1 subunit could be associated with mastitis.