Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix has a long history in China as a commonly used herb that can be used to treat various diseases, including those related to the liver, muscles, bones, and kidneys. Recently, an increase in the number of adulterants has been reported, which affects the clinical safety of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix. To identify adulterants of Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, we collected samples from major regions and conducted an in-depth genetic comparison of the herb and its commonly used adulterants.
Orinus is an alpine endemic genus of Poaceae. Because of the imperfect specimens, high level of intraspecific morphological variability, and homoplasies of morphological characters, it is relatively difficult to delimitate species of Orinus by using morphology alone. To this end, the DNA barcoding has shown great potential in identifying species.
DNA barcoding is an effective method for identifying species by analyzing one or a few short standardized DNA sequences. In this study, we examined the utility of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences as a DNA barcode for the identification of six species belonging to the genus Thryssa: T. dussumieri, T. hamiltonii, T. kammalensis, T. mystax, T. setirostris, and T. vitrirostris. We obtained an intraspecific distance of 0.000 for T. vitrirostris and T.