Waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing in popularity, particularly among young adults. This popularity is related to the lack knowledge regarding the health effects of waterpipe smoking. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of waterpipe smoking using an 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) assay. Genotoxicity was evaluated in the saliva, urine, and serum of 66 waterpipe adult smokers and 46 healthy nonsmokers. The level of addiction to waterpipe smoking was evaluated using the Lebanon Waterpipe Dependence Scale-11.
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) regulates many cellular processes, including protein stability, cell cycle control, DNA repair, transcription, signal transduction, and protein trafficking. In fact, UPS plays a key role in various stress conditions such as ischemia, glutamate toxicity, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. Huwe1, a homologous to E6-AP carboxy terminus (HECT) domain ubiquitin ligase, is now being regarded as a vital protein involved in neural stem cell differentiation, adult neurogenesis, and the DNA damage response pathway.
Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects.
The genus Lupinus is widely distributed. Its seeds are used for animal and human food, and Lupinus possesses pharmacological potential because of its high content of quinolizidine alkaloids and flavonoids; however, there is little available information about its genotoxicity. We used the comet assay and staminal nuclei of Tradescantia (clone 4430) to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity of 4 concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mM) of alkaloid extracts of Lupinus mexicanus and Lupinus montanus, flavonoids of L.
We investigated the effects of cadmium on lung cell DNA in immature mice. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group, low-dose group (1/100 LD50), middle-dose group (1/50 LD50), and high-dose group (1/25 LD50); they were supplied with cadmium chloride or control water for 40 days. Lung cells collected from sacrificed mice were used to evaluate the extent of DNA damage by comet assay.
The condition of mtDNA in hair shafts preserved in a museum was examined using 30 study skins of masked palm civets, Paguma larvata (Viverridae), collected between 1924 and 2011. Comparisons of extracts from fresh and burnt alum-fixed hair shafts showed that burnt alum, which is commonly used in taxidermy, had no harmful effect on the amount of total DNA and lengths of the mtDNA fragments.
As a contribution towards detecting the genetic effects of low doses of genotoxic physical agents, this paper deals with the consequences of low-dose X-rays in the Aspergillus nidulans genome. The irradiation doses studied were those commonly used in dental clinics (1-5 cGy).
Nucleotide excision repair (NER) acts on a broad spectrum of large lesions, while base excision repair removes individual modified bases. Although both processes have been well studied in human cells, novel genes involved in these DNA repair pathways have been described. Using a heterologous complementation approach, we identified a fetal human cDNA that complemented two Escherichia coli mutants that are defective in 3-methyl adenine glycosylase and in three endonucleases, all of which are enzymes with important roles in base excision repair.
Lungs comprise the primary organ exposed to environmental toxic chemicals, resulting in diverse respiratory ailments and other disorders, including carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage phenomenon, which involves a series of genetic alterations that begin with genomic instability provoked by certain factors such as inflammation and DNA damage and end with the development of cancer.
The effects of crude extracts of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murrill (Agaricaceae) on both DNA damage and placental form glutathione S-transferase (GST-P)-positive liver foci induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) were investigated. Six groups of adult male Wistar rats were used. For two weeks, animals of groups 3 to 6 were treated with three aqueous solutions of A. blazei (mean dry weight of solids being 1.2, 5.6, 11.5 and 11.5 mg/ml, respectively).