Until recently, Fenneropenaeus penicillatus was considered a commercial shrimp species. However, in 2005, it was included on the Red List as an endangered species by the Chinese government. In this study, 19 new microsatellite markers in F. penicillatus were developed and tested in samples of 32 wild individuals from Nanao, China. Twelve loci were polymorphic and 7 were monomorphic. Of the 12 polymorphic loci, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 6, with an average of 4.42 alleles per locus.