The objective of this study was to compare 12 bp-duplication polymorphisms in exon 4 of the κ-casein gene among 3 breeds/populations of yak (Bos grunniens). Genomic DNA was extracted from yak blood or muscle samples (N = 211) and a partial sequence of exon 4 of κ-casein gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay of the products (169 bp) revealed 2 variants. These variants differed in a 12-bp duplication of the nucleotide sequence corresponding to amino acids 147-150 (Glu-Ala-Ser-Pro) or 148-151 (Ala-Ser-Pro-Glu).
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is one of the most important genetic systems associated with resistance to infectious diseases in vertebrates. The spotted seal (Phoca largha) is one of the most endangered species in China. In this study, we present the first step in the molecular characterization of a DRB-like locus in the spotted seal by analyzing the nucleotide sequence of the polymorphic exon 2 segments, a 288-nucleotide sequence. By examining the segment from a group of 41 individuals, 28 alleles were identified.
The receptors for the immunosuppression drugs FK506 and rapamycin are called FKBPs (FK506-binding proteins). FKBPs comprise a large family; they are found in many species, including bacteria, fungi, animals, and plants. As a class of peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase enzymes, the FKBP genes have been the focus of recent studies on plant stress tolerance and immunology. We identified and analyzed gene families encoding these proteins in maize using computational and molecular biology approaches.
Cyclins are primary regulators of the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases and play crucial roles in cell cycle progression in eukaryotes. Although extensive studies have revealed the roles of some cyclins and underlying mechanisms in plants, relatively few cyclins have been functionally analyzed in maize. We identified 59 cyclins in the maize genome, distributed on 10 chromosomes; these were grouped into six types by phylogenetic analysis. The cyclin genes in the maize genome went through numerous tandem gene duplications on five chromosomes.