Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and p-coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H) are key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The relative expression of PAL and C3H was evaluated in mango fruit cultivar ‘Ataulfo’ in four ripening stages (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, enzyme activity of PAL and C3H was determined in mango fruits during ripening. The PAL levels were downregulated at the RS2 and RS3 stages, while C3H levels were upregulated in fruits only at RS3.
The starfish Asterias rubens is one of the most abundant echinoderm species in the White, Barents, North, and Baltic Seas. This species is an important component of marine ecosystems and a model object for certain biological studies, in particular those requiring quantitative estimation of gene expression. As a rule, expression at the transcriptional level is estimated by real-time qPCR using the ΔΔCt method, which allows the comparison of the copy number of target gene transcripts in samples with unknown mRNA/cDNA concentration.
Expression of the YABBY gene family in the abaxial surface of lateral plant organs determines abaxial destiny of cells, enhances growth and expansion of lateral organs, and plays an important role in polar establishment of lateral organs. However, the YABBY gene has not been studied in male sterility and fertility restoration. We homologously cloned the CtYABBY1 gene of male-sterile TC1 in Brassica campestris L. ssp chinensis var. parachinensis; its expression was analyzed by real-time PCR.
Warm day and cool night conditions significantly induce reproductive spike formation in Phalaenopsis plants; hence, determining the flowering mechanism regulating the reproductive transition is important. Flowering locus T (FT) plays important roles in flowering induction in several plants. To explore spike induction by warm days and cool nights in Phalaenopsis orchids, we isolated the FT (PhFT) from Phalaenopsis hybrid Fortune Saltzman.
Three ω-3 fatty acid desaturase genes (CtFAD3, CtFAD7, and CtFAD8) were isolated from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Transcript analysis showed that the highest transcript levels were detected for CtFAD3 and the low transcript levels were detected for CtFAD7 and CtFAD8 in flowers. This result indicates that CtFAD3 enzyme activity is important for fatty acid desaturation in flowers.
The freshwater pearl mussel Hyriopsis cumingii is of commercial importance because it produces the freshwater pearl; however, knowledge about the molecular characterization and regulation mechanisms of α-amylase remains unknown for this species. In this study, the full-length cDNA of the α-amylase gene (HcAmy) was isolated from H. cumingii by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends.
Leptin is an important regulator of appetite, energy metabolism, and reproduction and is mainly synthesized in the adipocytes and then secreted into the bloodstream. The leptin receptor was classified as type I cytokine receptor due to its structural homology with IL-6 receptors and the signaling pathways in which they are both involved.
A total of 160 Rongchang pigs (26.76 ± 1.78 kg) were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatment groups until their body weight (BW) reached 90 kg. The diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Our results showed that the 1.0 to 2.0% CLA-fed pigs had less back fat deposition when their BW reached 90 kg than the pigs that received less than 1% CLA. During the 30 to 60 kg growing period, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% CLA treatments improved pork quality by significantly reducing the pork pH (P
The influence of warm day and cool night conditions on induction of spikes in Phalaenopsis orchids has been studied with respect to photosynthetic efficiency, metabolic cycles and physiology. However, molecular events involved in spike emergence induced by warm day and cool night conditions are not clearly understood.
Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) plays an important role in the economy of more than 140 countries, but it is grown in areas with intermittent stressful soil and climatic conditions. The stress tolerance could be addressed by manipulating the ethylene response factor (ERF) transcription factors because they orchestrate plant responses to environmental stress. We performed an in silico study on the ERFs in the expressed sequence tag database of C. sinensis to identify potential genes that regulate plant responses to stress.