The full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of heat shock protein 90 was cloned from Phascolosoma esculenta (PeHSP90) using expressed sequence tag and rapid amplification of cDNA end approaches. The cDNA of PeHSP90 was 2521 bp including a 5'-untranslated region of 110 bp, a 3'-untranslated region of 230 bp, and an open reading frame of 2181 bp. All of the characteristic motifs of the HSP90 family were completely conserved in the deduced amino acid of PeHSP90.
The precise causes of psoriasis, a chronic skin disorder characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes and incomplete keratinization, are unclear. It is known that expression of helix-loop-helix transcription factor Id1, which functions as an inhibitor of differentiation, is upregulated in psoriatic skin. We investigated the effect of the antipsoriatic drug dithranol on mRNA and protein expression levels of Id1 in the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line. Cultured HaCaT cells were treated with 0-0.5 μg/mL dithranol for 30 min.
Coffee quality is directly related to the harvest and post harvest conditions. Non-uniform maturation of coffee fruits, combined with inadequate harvest, negatively affects the final quality of the product. Pectin methylesterase (PME) plays an important role in fruit softening due to the hydrolysis of methylester groups in cell wall pectins. In order to characterize the changes occurring during coffee fruit maturation, the enzymatic activity of PME was measured during different stages of fruit ripening.
Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) are enzymes that participate in diverse intracellular signaling pathways. They are classified into 3 functionally distinct subfamilies - PIPKI (a, b, g), PIPKII (a, b, g), and PIPKIII - located in various subcellular compartments. Recently, the PIPKIIa and b-globin genes were found to be overexpressed in reticulocytes from 2 siblings with hemoglobin H disease, suggesting a possible relationship between PIPKIIa and the production of globins.
To elucidate how physiological and biochemical mechanisms of chilling stress are regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) pretreatment, pepper variety (cv. ‘P70’) seedlings were pretreated with 0.57 mM ABA for 72 h and then subjected to chilling stress at 10°/6°C (day/night). Chilling stress caused severe necrotic lesions on the leaves and increased malondialdehyde and H2O2 levels.
The efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in diet supplements for milk fat reduction is well documented in several species. However, the mechanisms by which fatty acids regulate mammary lipogenesis remain largely unknown, especially with regard to gene expression of enzyme and regulators. In this study, 8 Holstein dairy cows in their mid-lactation period were randomly divided into 2 groups.
Nelumbo nucifera is widely used as food, as an ornamental, in medicine, and as packing material; it is also reported to have anti-HIV effects and antioxidant capacity. We sought an improved method for extracting high-quality total RNA from different tissues of N. nucifera. Four methods for RNA extraction were assessed for their ability to recover high-quality RNA applicable for evaluation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) gene expression profiles.
We examined the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (XIAP and Bcl-2) and apoptotic genes (cytochrome c, caspase-9, Apaf-1) in tissue samples of patients with superficial bladder cancer. Thirty-two bladder cancer tissue samples (8 papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, 10 low-grade, and 14 high-grade) and 8 normal bladder tissue samples from necropsy were used for the study of gene expression by real-time PCR analysis.
DNA methylation is a fundamental epigenetic mechanism in regulating the expression of genes controlling crucial cell functions in cancer development. Gene silencing via CpG island methylation/demethylation in the promoter region is one of the mechanisms by which different genes are inactivated/activated in human cancers. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) is known to antagonize matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and to suppress tumor growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.
The malaria treatment recommended by the World Health Organization involves medicines derived from artemisinin, an active compound extracted from the plant Artemisia annua, and some of its derivatives, such as artesunate. Considering the lack of data regarding the genotoxic effects of these compounds in human cells, the objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, and expressions of the CASP3 and SOD1 genes in a cultured human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2 cells) treated with artemisinin and artesunate.