This study investigated the alteration of gene expression profiles in order to gain a deeper understanding into the molecular mechanism involved in different processes of vascular calcification (VC). Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were injected with 300,000 μg/kg vitamin D3 and gavaged with 25 mg/kg nicotine for 8 or 16 weeks to create 8- and 16-week VC calcification groups. Histological analysis and quantification of aortic calcium content were used to determine the severity of vascular calcification.
Calpastatin (CAST) is an endogenous calpain inhibitor and its main function is to modulate the proteolytic action of enzymes responsible for post-mortem myofibril deterioration. The myostatin gene (GDF-8) acts as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. The expression of these two genes, as well as their interaction, affects the quality of the meat, especially the tenderness phenotype.
The aim of this study was to observe the dynamic expression of osteopontin, type I collagen, and osteocalcin genes during the differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts and confirm whether BMSCs can differentiate and mature into osteoblasts. A healthy, 2-month-old Altay tailed sheep was obtained, and 10 mL bone marrow was extracted from the posterior superior iliac spine of the sheep via puncture. Sheep BMSCs were extracted using a whole bone marrow culture method and cultured for osteogenic induction.
In order to better understand vitamin D3 in cattle metabolism, we quantified 1alpha-HYD and 24-HYD gene expression. In the kidneys of 35 male Nellore cattle, these were divided into a control group and two treatment groups (2 x 106 international units of vitamin D3 administered for 2 or 8 consecutive days pre-slaughter).
Macro- and microarrays are well-established technologies to determine gene functions through repeated measurements of transcript abundance. We constructed a chicken skeletal muscle-associated array based on a muscle-specific EST database, which was used to generate a tissue expression dataset of ~4500 chicken genes across 5 adult tissues (skeletal muscle, heart, liver, brain, and skin). Only a small number of ESTs were sufficiently well characterized by BLAST searches to determine their probable cellular functions.
We determined the expression levels of DREB transcription factor (Gmdreb1) and of the genes Gmgols, Gmpip1b, Gmereb, and Gmdefensin in drought-tolerant (MG/BR46-Conquista) and drought-sensitive (BR16) genotypes of soybean, during drought. The trial was carried out in a controlled-environment chamber, set up to provide drought conditions. Sequences of Arabidopsis thaliana DREB-family proteins were used to build a phylogenetic tree through the alignment of the conserved regions near the AP2 domain.
The pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum is an ongoing threat to agriculture, causing losses in grain yield and quality in diverse crops. Substantial progress has been made in the identification of genes involved in the suppression of phytopathogens by antagonistic microorganisms; however, limited information regarding responses of plant pathogens to these biocontrol agents is available. Gene expression analysis was used to identify differentially expressed transcripts of the fungal plant pathogen F.
The lethal gene ‘Luteus-Pa’ is found in cacao genotypes (Theobroma cacao) of the Parinari (Pa) series, from Peru. Seedlings affected by this gene have yellowing leaves and subsequently die. We mapped this gene based on microsatellite markers and RAPDs, in order to elucidate the inheritance of ‘Luteus-Pa’ and investigate possible lethal mechanisms. DNA samples of genitors were amplified with 87 SSR and 64 RAPD primers. The SSR primers amplified 65 RAPD primers, giving 179 polymorphic bands.
Sib-seedlings of 95 strains of the strictly autogamous grass Hordeum euclaston were analyzed by horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for four isoenzyme systems at a specific ontogenetic stage. We found differences in the activity of some genes among individuals of this species. Hence, an ontogenetic analysis was carried out to investigate 12 strains at five ontogenetic stages, to determine the patterns of expression of these genes during development.
Hepatic pit cells are a population of large granular lymphocytes that substantially contribute to hepatic immunity. Studies have proven that pit cells have a role in liver regeneration, but the details of the relationship between pit cells and liver regeneration is not clear at present.