The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters belong to a large superfamily of proteins that have important physiological functions in all living organisms. In insects, ABC transporters have important functions in the transport of molecules, and are also involved in insecticide resistance, metabolism, and development. In this study, the Nilaparvata lugens Stal (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) ABCG (NlABCG) gene was identified and characterized.
Hemoglobin (Hb) is the major protein component of erythrocytes in animals with red blood, although it can serve additional functions beyond the transport of oxygen. The blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) is one of the few mollusks that has Hb, although the structure and function of molluskan Hbs remain unclear. We characterized two unique and highly compartmentalized blood clam hemoglobin genes, Tg-HbIIA and Tg-HbIIB, at the molecular level.
The evolutionary origin and significance of spliceosomal introns have been the subject of many investigations. Two theories, “introns-early” theory and “introns-late” theory, have been proposed to explain the evolution of introns in eukaryotic genes. Intron position is generally conserved in paralogue and orthologue genes. Some introns occur at similar but not necessarily identical positions in homologous genes, which were separated by great evolutionary distances. This event can be explained by insertion, loss or movement of the intron over short distances.