Genotoxicity

Application of molecular markers to detect DNA damage caused by environmental pollutants in lichen species

D. Cansaran-Duman, Altunkaynak, E., Aslan, A., Büyük, İ., and Aras, S., Application of molecular markers to detect DNA damage caused by environmental pollutants in lichen species, vol. 14, pp. 4637-4650, 2015.

Pseudevernia furfuracea L. (Zopf), Peltigera praetextata (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Zopf, Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., and Usnea longissima Ach. lichen species were used as bioindicators to assess the genotoxicity of air pollutants. In the present study, we examined significant environmetal pollutants and investigate how changes may lead to damage in DNA structure using RAPD markers.

Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae)

G. A. Asare, Bugyei, K., Sittie, A., Yahaya, E. S., Gyan, B., Adjei, S., Addo, P., Wiredu, E. K., Adjei, D. N., and Nyarko, A. K., Genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and toxicological evaluation of whole plant extracts of the medicinal plant Phyllanthus niruri (Phyllanthaceae), vol. 11, pp. 100-111, 2012.

Phyllanthus niruri is a medicinal plant (commonly known as stone breaker) found in the tropics and other parts of the world. It is known for its capacity to block the formation of calcium oxalate crystals and kidney stone formation in urolithiasis. This plant has been used to treat hyperglycemia, hypertension, pain, and mild cases of malaria. We examined the geno-, cyto- and overall toxicity of P. niruri whole plant ethanolic extract.

Induced mitotic homologous recombination by the babesicide imidocarb dipropionate in Aspergillus nidulans diploid cells

P. A. S. R. Santos, Sant’Anna, J. R., Franco, C. C. S., Rosada, L. J., Esquissato, G. N. M., and Castro-Prado, M. A. A., Induced mitotic homologous recombination by the babesicide imidocarb dipropionate in Aspergillus nidulans diploid cells, vol. 11, pp. 1810-1818, 2012.

Imidocarb dipropionate (IMD) is a chemotherapeutic agent prescribed for the treatment and control of babesiosis; it is known to be a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor. Although it is an effective babesicide, there are reports of persistent IMD residues retained at high levels in edible tissues of cattle, swine and sheep, raising concerns about potential effects on humans.

Evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of antileishmanial extract from Julocroton triqueter (Euphorbiaceae)

V. R. Moreira, Dias, A. C. S., Martins, A. R. P., Lima, M. I. S., Serra, I. C. P. B., Ribeiro, M. N. S., Nascimento, F. R. F., and Pereira, S. R. F., Evaluation of genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of antileishmanial extract from Julocroton triqueter (Euphorbiaceae), vol. 12, pp. 1132-1142, 2013.

Julocroton triqueter extracts have antileishmanial activity; however, the effect on genetic stability has not been studied. We evaluated genotoxic and cell death induction potential (in vitro and in vivo) of J. triqueter var. triqueter hydroalcoholic extracts, as well as their antigenotoxic potential in vivo. The in vitro genotoxic studies were performed using human leukocytes at four different concentrations.

Genotoxicity in oral epithelial cells in children caused by nickel in metal crowns

J. Morán-Martínez, de Luna, K. D. Monreal-, Betancourt-Martínez, N. D., Carranza-Rosales, P., Contreras-Martínez, J. G., López-Meza, M. C., and Rodríguez-Villarreal, O., Genotoxicity in oral epithelial cells in children caused by nickel in metal crowns, vol. 12, pp. 3178-3185, 2013.

The micronucleus (MN) assay evaluates the effects of low doses of genotoxic carcinogens and can detect structural lesions that survive mitotic cycles. The objective of this study was to determine both the genotoxicity of nickel (Ni) in buccal epithelial cells and the urinary excretion of Ni in children with metal crowns. This was a prospective longitudinal study based on 37 patients selected at the Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila.

Cellular responses induced in vitro by pestheic acid, a fungal metabolite, in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100)

J. M. C. Sousa, Matos, L. A., Alcântara, D. F. A., Ribeiro, H. F., Santos, L. S., Oliveira, M. N., Brito-Junior, L. C., Khayat, A. S., Guimarães, A. C., Cunha, L. A., Burbano, R. R., and Bahia, M. O., Cellular responses induced in vitro by pestheic acid, a fungal metabolite, in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100), vol. 12, pp. 4106-4115, 2013.

There is a constant search for new cancer treatments that are less aggressive and economically affordable. In this context, natural products extracted from plants, fungi, and microorganisms are of great interest. Pestheic acid, or dihidromaldoxin, is a chlorinated diphenylic ether extracted from the phytopathogenic fungus Pestalotiopsis guepinii (Amphisphaeriaceae). We assessed the cytotoxic, cytostatic, and genotoxic effects of pestheic acid in a gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (PG100). A decrease in clonogenic survival was observed.

Modulatory effect of Palicourea coriacea (Rubiaceae) against damage induced by doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster

D. C. S. Passos, Ferreira, H. D., Vieira, I. L. F. B., Nunes, W. B., Felício, L. P., Silva, E. M., Vale, C. R., Duarte, S. R., Silva, E. S., and Carvalho, S., Modulatory effect of Palicourea coriacea (Rubiaceae) against damage induced by doxorubicin in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, vol. 9, pp. 1153-1162, 2010.

Palicourea coriacea, popularly known as “douradinha”, is a medicinal plant from the Brazilian Cerrado region used in folk medicine to treat kidney and urethral stones and kidney inflammation. We evaluated the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and possible antigenotoxic activities of an aqueous extract of P. coriacea on somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster, using the somatic mutation and recombination test. We used third-stage larvae of D. melanogaster from a standard cross and a high bioactivation cross and tested 10 different doses of P.

Mutagenic potential and modulatory effects of the medicinal plant Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae) in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster: SMART/wing

L. P. Felício, Silva, E. M., Ribeiro, V., Miranda, C. T., Vieira, I. L. B. F., Passos, D. C. S., Ferreira, A. K. S., Vale, C. R., Lima, D. C. S., Carvalho, S., and Nunes, W. B., Mutagenic potential and modulatory effects of the medicinal plant Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae) in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster: SMART/wing, vol. 10, pp. 16-24, 2011.

Luehea divaricata is a native plant of the Brazilian Cerrado, known as “açoita-cavalo”. It is used as a popular herbal medicine in the treatment of dysentery, bleeding, arthritis, tumors, ulcers, and gangrenous wounds. Considering that herbal medicines sometimes provoke tumors and/or may prevent mutational events, it is important to study the action of these natural drugs on DNA. Aqueous extract of the bark of L.

Modulatory effects of Duguetia furfuracea (A. St. Hil) Benth. and Hook. f. in Drosophila melanogaster somatic and germinative cells

L. S. Coelho, Felício, L. P., Miranda, C. T., Vale, C. R., Lima, D. C. S., Duarte, S. R., Ferreira, H. D., L. Chen, C., Carvalho, S., and da Silva, E. M., Modulatory effects of Duguetia furfuracea (A. St. Hil) Benth. and Hook. f. in Drosophila melanogaster somatic and germinative cells, vol. 10, pp. 75-85, 2011.

Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of the medicinal plant Duguetia furfuracea were assessed using SMART/wing and ring-X-loss tests. For the ring-X-loss test, 2- to 3-day-old Drosophila melanogaster ring-X-lineage males and virgin ywsn3 females received D. furfuracea infusion at doses of 0.085, 0.042, or 0.014 g/mL for 24 h. We found that D. furfuracea did not produce any mutagenic effects in D. melanogaster germinative cells. The somatic cells of D.

N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity evaluation: a cytochrome P450 induction study in rat hepatocytes

C. A. F. Aiub, Gadermaier, G., Silva, I. O., Felzenszwalb, I., Pinto, L. F. R., Ferreira, F., and Eckl, P., N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity evaluation: a cytochrome P450 induction study in rat hepatocytes, vol. 10, pp. 2340-2348, 2011.

In rats, N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induces tumors mainly in the liver. This could be because various enzymes are responsible for the metabolic activation of NDEA, besides the hepatic NDEA metabolizing enzyme, CYP2E1. We examined NDEA genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in primary cultures of female rat hepatocytes; we also looked at how it affected CYP mRNA expression. Single incubation with 0.9% NaCl resulted in a mean of 0.2% apoptotic cells, which doubled with 105 μg NDEA/mL. The frequency of necrosis with NDEA treatment was also doubled.

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