The domestication of the Equus genus 5000-6000 years ago has influenced the history of human civilization. As soon as horse and donkey species had been domesticated, they were crossbred, producing humanity’s first documented attempt at animal genome manipulation. Since then, the mule (male donkey x female horse) and the reciprocal cross (the hinny, male horse x female donkey) have been the most common equine hybrids in the world. Due to their hybrid vigor, mules and hinnies have been intensively used for carrying loads and people and for tilling the land.
Toxoplasma gondii is a successful opportunistic protozoan distributed worldwide, which can infect all vertebrates, leading to serious infection, blindness, and abortion. Micronemal (MIC) proteins are critically important for T. gondii infection, as they participate in various stages of the Toxoplasma life cycle, including invasion and attachment to host cells. MIC8 secretion relies on the concentration of intracellular calcium, and can mediate the invasion of T. gondii by interacting with soluble MIC3.
Hemoglobin (Hb) Adana [HBA2: c179G>A (or HBA1); p.Gly60Asp] is a non-deletional α-thalassemia variant found in Malaysia. An improvement in the molecular techniques in recent years has made identification of Hb Adana much easier. For this study, a total of 26 Hb Adana α-thalassemia intermedia and 10 Hb Adana trait blood samples were collected from patients. Common deletional and non-deletional α-thalassemia genotypes were determined using multiplex gap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and multiplex ARMS PCR techniques.