This study evaluates the relationship between the genotype and milk protein components in goats. Milk samples were collected from cloned goats and normal white goats during different postpartum (or abortion) phases. Two cloned goats, originated from the same somatic line of goat mammary gland epithelial cells, and three sexually reproduced normal white goats with no genetic relationships were used as the control. The goats were phylogenetically analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
SWEETs are a recently discovered class of sugar transporters that mediate glucose uptake in the intestine and mammary glands. Our objectives were to clone goat SWEET1 and conduct a functional analysis of its effect on glucose efflux in goat mammary gland epithelial cells. We cloned and sequenced the goat SWEET1 gene from goat mammary glands, then conducted an analysis of the structure of goat SWEET1, including a prediction of the transmembrane helices and potential N-glycosylation sites.
Although RNA-Seq is an effective method for identifying and exploring novel functional genes in mammals, it has rarely been applied to study fertility-related genes in the goat. In this study, RNA-Seq was used to screen the estrus ovaries of uniparous and multiparous Anhui white goats (AWGs). In total, 15,890 genes were identified and 2201 of these were found to be differentially expressed between the genetic libraries from uniparous and multiparous goats. Compared to the uniparous library, 1583 genes were up-regulated and 618 genes were down-regulated in the multiparous library.
Immune-related miRNAs in breast milk are extracellular miRNAs that are related to immune organ development and regulation of the immune function in infants and young animals. The goal of this study was to compare the expression levels of five immune-related miRNAs in breast milk in black goats, humans, and dairy cattle. The miRNAs from milk were extracted and the expression levels were assessed using quantitive RT-PCR methods.