Epigenetic modifying enzymes play important roles in the adaptation to hypoxia, although no studies have examined their expression levels in Tibet pigs. The lung is an important functional organ in hypoxia adaptation. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression level of 5 enzymes in the lung of Tibet pigs using real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epigenetic performance of hypoxia adaptation. We selected four groups of pig as the study object, which were Tibet pig in highland (TH), Yorkshire in highland (YH), Tibet pig in lowland (TL), Yorkshire in lowland (YL).
Hypoxia can affect energy metabolism. We examined gene expression and enzyme activity related to mitochondrial energy metabolism, as well as myosin heavy chain (MyHC) types in yaks (Bos grunniens) living at high altitudes. Real-time quantitative PCR assays indicated that the yak has significantly lower levels of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) mRNA in the biceps femoris and lower levels of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) mRNA in both biceps femoris and longissimus dorsi than in Yellow cattle.
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A gene (VEGF-A) is a key regulator of angiogenesis and an endothelial cell mitogen that plays an important role in high-altitude adaptation. In this study, we detected 2 novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VEGF-A by screening for genetic variation in 700 individuals of 3 domestic Chinese yak breeds - namely Gannan (GN), Datong (DT), and Tianzhu white (TZW) - using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing techniques.