Hypostomus is a group of fish with numerical and structural karyotypic variability. Among them, only six species, three of which belong to the Amazon basin, show a sex chromosome. In this study, we present the karyotype structure of Hypostomus cf. plecostomus from the Teles Pires river basin in the municipality of Alta Floresta, MT. The species has 2n = 68 and the karyotype formula 14m+ 24sm+ 14st+ 16a [fundamental number (FN) = 120] in males and 15m+ 24sm+14st+15a (FN = 121) in females and sex chromosomes ZZ/ZW.
Loricariidae (Siluriformes, Hypostominae) is one of the most diverse catfish families. In spite of the wide distribution of loricariids in South America, cytogenetic reports are available for only a few species, mostly from southern and southeastern Brazil. We made the first chromosomal analysis of Hypostomus aff. unae from the Contas River basin in northeastern Brazil.
We isolated and characterized 10 microsatellite loci in the armored catfish (Hypostomus gymnorhynchus, Loricariidae), using a genomic shotgun library to obtain the repetitive sequences. Twenty-four primers were designed and 14 individuals of H. gymnorhynchus from the Caiapó River, in central Brazil, were genotyped using these primers to analyze the polymorphism at each locus. All loci showed low polymorphism, with a low number of alleles per locus (1 or 2), except locus Hg_E19, which had 11 alleles.