It is estimated that 60% of anticancer drugs are derived directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian medicine to treat inflammation, ulcers, and tumors. Because of the need to identify new antimutagenic agents and to determine their mechanism of action, this study evaluated the chemopreventive activity of the methanolic extract from leaves of S.
Plants such as Annona nutans used in folk medicine have a large number of biologically active compounds with pharmacological and/or toxic potential. Moreover, pregnant women use these plants indiscriminately, mainly in the form of teas, without being aware of the harm that they could cause to the health of the embryo/fetus. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the potential toxic effects of medicinal plants during gestation. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of A.
Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders, and can be currently considered as an epidemic. Although there are few weight reduction drugs available on the market, some new drug candidates have been proposed, including Cordia ecalyculata, a Brazilian plant with anorectic properties, and Spirulina maxima, a cyanobacterium with antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activity. In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic potential of C. ecalyculata at doses of 150, 300, and 500 mg/kg alone and in association with S.
In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of carrageenan, a sulfated polysaccharide, and described its mode of action by using an Allium cepa assay. The results indicate that carrageenan is not mutagenic, rather it has significant chemopreventive potential that is mediated by both demutagenic and bio-antimutagenic activities. This compound can adsorb agents that are toxic to DNA and inactivate them. Additionally, carrageenan can modulate enzymes of the DNA repair system.
The micronucleus (MN) assay evaluates the effects of low doses of genotoxic carcinogens and can detect structural lesions that survive mitotic cycles. The objective of this study was to determine both the genotoxicity of nickel (Ni) in buccal epithelial cells and the urinary excretion of Ni in children with metal crowns. This was a prospective longitudinal study based on 37 patients selected at the Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila.
We looked for genotoxic effects in laboratory personnel routinely exposed to petroleum derivate compounds in an indoor environment. The exposed group of 21 workers from the Fuel Quality Control Laboratory of the Brazilian Petroleum Agency was matched with a group of 10 people from the staff of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, micronuclei in exfoliated cells in the urine and hematological parameters were examined.
Hairdressers are exposed daily to chemical substances, such as dyes, chemical straighteners and curling chemicals, which can be absorbed, inhaled or possibly ingested. We analyzed the frequency of micronuclei (MNC) in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa of 50 hairdressers and 50 controls in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. An assessment was carried out on the incidence of MNC, binucleated cells (BNC), broken egg cells (BEC), budding cells (BC), and the sum of anomalies (SA), in 2000 cells per individual. The data were analyzed with SPSS, using the Mann-Whitney U-test, α = 0.05.
We evaluated micronucleus and apoptosis occurrence among women with normal smears and women with different kinds of cervical abnormalities, i.e., inflammatory processes and low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (N = 12, N = 10 and N = 27, respectively). The sample included 59 women who were seen at a public medical service for cervical cancer prevention in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. The diagnosis was established by means of cytological, colposcopic, and histopathological examination.
Patients with chronic renal disease have an increased incidence of cancer. It is well known that long periods of hemodialysis treatment are linked to DNA damage due to oxidative stress. This genotoxic effect may cause the loss of chromosome fragments, or even entire chromosomes, which form micronuclei after cell division, and can be detected by the micronucleus test. In the present case-control study, we evaluated the genotoxic effect of hemodialysis treatment in 20 patients undergoing hemodialysis, and 20 subjected to peritoneal dialysis, matched for gender and age with 40 controls.
The radiotracer technetium-99m methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) has been widely used for myocardial blood flow imaging. We investigated the genotoxicity of 99mTc-MIBI in cultured human lymphocytes at the same concentration used in patients. Radioactivity doses were determined in whole blood at 5 min post-injection of 20 mCi 99mTc-MIBI in patients. Subsequently, whole blood of human volunteers was incubated with 1, 2.3, 4 or 8 μCi 99mTc-MIBI.