The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) aquaculture industry in Asia is prone to bacterial and viral hemorrhagic diseases. Effective adjuvants for vaccine formulation are the need of the hour for control of these diseases and long-term sustainability of grass carp farming. In this study, the involvement of interleukin-12 (IL-12) from grass carp (gcIL‑12) in anti-bacterial and anti-viral immune responses was demonstrated via expression profiles of gcIL-12 subunits in immune tissues of the fish, following infection by Aeromonas hydrophila and Aquareovirus.
C-type lectins are a superfamily of Ca2+-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that are well known for their participation in pathogen recognition and clearance. In this study, a putative C-type lectin fold (MyCLF) gene was identified from the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis. The full-length of MyCLF was 645 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 167 amino acids.
Epigenetic modifying enzymes play important roles in the adaptation to hypoxia, although no studies have examined their expression levels in Tibet pigs. The lung is an important functional organ in hypoxia adaptation. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression level of 5 enzymes in the lung of Tibet pigs using real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epigenetic performance of hypoxia adaptation. We selected four groups of pig as the study object, which were Tibet pig in highland (TH), Yorkshire in highland (YH), Tibet pig in lowland (TL), Yorkshire in lowland (YL).
The enhanced expression of heat shock proteins (hsps) in organisms can be detected in response to many kinds of stressor. For fish, high temperature is an important stressor, and hsp expression is associated with differences in environmental temperature.
Y-box proteins are a family of highly conserved nucleic acid binding proteins that interact with genome and transcription product to modulate the transcriptional and translational processes. In the present study, a complete mRNA of Y-box binding protein (designated SmYB) was obtained from Sepiella maindroni by amplification of flanking sequences.
Pattern recognition molecules play an important role in innate immunity by recognizing conserved molecular patterns that are present on the surface of invading microorganisms. In this study, a lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) gene was cloned from the hard clam Meretrix meretrix (designated as Mm-LGBP) by the expressed sequence tags and rapid amplification of cDNA ends method.
TWEAK and APRIL are important members of the TNF superfamily, which play a crucial role in several diseases. Here, we describe the identification of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) homologs of TWEAK and APRIL (designated gcTWEAK and gcAPRIL, respectively) and their response to Aeromonas hydrophila and Aquareovirus infection. The gcTWEAK cDNA sequence contains 2273 bases with an open reading frame of 753 bases encoding 250-amino acid residues.
Chitinase-like proteins (CLP) are important members of the glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) and are involved in growth control and remodeling processes. In this study, a CLP transcript was isolated and sequenced from the Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) after screening expressed sequence tags. The full-length complementary DNA of M. yessoensis CLP (My-Clp1) was 1555 bp in length, consisting of a 75-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 160-bp 3'-UTR, and a 1320-bp open reading frame bearing characteristics of the GH18 family.
Because of their specific binding to carbohydrates, lectins play a crucial role in pathogen recognition and clearance in vertebrate animals. Previously, only two types of collectins had been isolated from bony fish: mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and galactose-binding lectin (GalBL). We sequenced a novel collectin (designated EALec1) from the red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara.
Leucine (Leu) participates in the activity of cationic amino acid (aa) transporters. Also, branched-chain aa [Leu, isoleucine (Ile), and valine (Val)] share intestinal transporters for absorption. We conducted an experiment with 16 young pigs (body weight of about 16 kg) to determine whether Leu and Ile affect expression of aa transporters b0,+ and CAT-1 in the jejunum and expression of myosin in muscle, as well as serum concentration of essential aa, and growth performance in pigs.