Large number of cellular changes and diseases are related to mutations in the mitochondrial DNA copy number. Cell culture in the presence of ethidium bromide is a known way of depleting mitochondrial DNA and is a useful model for studying such conditions. Interestingly, the morphology of these depleted cells resembles that of pluripotent cells, as they present larger and fragmented mitochondria with poorly developed cristae.
Chloroplast (cpDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were analyzed to establish genetic relationships among Tunisian plum cultivars using the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Two mtDNA regions (nad 1 b/c and nad 4 1/2) and a cpDNA region (trnL-trnF) were amplified and digested using restriction enzymes. Seventy and six polymorphic sites were revealed in cpDNA and mtDNA, respectively. As a consequence, cpDNA appears to be more polymorphic than mtDNA.
Hunan locates in the south-central part of China, to the south of the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and south of Lake Dongting. According to the historical records, the peopling of Hunan by modern human ancestors can ascend to 40 thousand years ago. Thus, to trace the ancient maternal components can offer further insight into the origin of south-central China. In this study, we investigated the mitochondrial DNA of 114 individuals from Hunan Province (including 34 Han, 40 Tujia and 40 Miao).
The aim of this study was to analyze genetic diversity and population structure among varieties of White (N = 40), Red (N = 32), and Black (N = 31) Morada Nova hair sheep from flocks in the northeastern Brazilian semiarid region. Fifteen nuclear microsatellite markers and two regions of mitochondrial DNA were used. The intra-population analysis demonstrated that the White variety had higher diversity, while the Red variety had the lowest values.
In countries containing a mega diversity of wildlife, such as Brazil, identifying and characterizing biological diversity is a continuous process for the scientific community, even in face of technological and scientific advances. This activity demands initiatives for the taxonomic identification of highly diverse groups, such as stingless bees, including molecular analysis strategies. This type of bee is distributed in all of the Brazilian states, with the highest species diversity being found in the State of Amazônia.
Our objective was to estimate Bos primigenius taurus introgression in American Zebu cattle. One hundred and four American Zebu (Nellore) cattle were submitted to mtDNA, microsatellite and satellite analysis. Twenty-three alleles were detected in microsatellite analysis, averaging 4.6 ± 1.82/locus. Variance component comparisons of microsatellite allele sizes allowed the construction of two clusters separating taurus and indicus. No significant variation was observed when indicus and taurus mtDNA were compared.
The massive destruction and deterioration of the habitat of Oryx leucoryx and illegal hunting have decimated Oryx populations significantly, and now these animals are almost extinct in the wild. Molecular analyses can significantly contribute to captive breeding and reintroduction strategies for the conservation of this endangered animal. A representative 32 identical sequences used for species identification through BOLD and GenBank/NCBI showed maximum homology 96.06% with O.
Selection pressures are the principle evolutionary forces for the genetic differentiation of populations. Recent changes in selection pressures on mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite have been described in a wide variety of organisms. The common carp (Cyprinus carpio) has experienced strong selection pressure, in particular artificial selection, during its domestication. However, the contribution and extent of artificial selection in driving genome-wide population differentiation remain unclear.
DNA sequence diversity in the tRNAleu-COII portion of the mitochondrial genome was investigated in samples of Apis cerana from Yunnan, China. A fragment of about 480 bp in tRNAleu-COII, including a noncoding area and part of COII, was sequenced. The noncoding area was 97-98 bp; 8 haplotypes were found, among which 5 had been reported previously, while 3 were new. The mean diversity of haplotypes was 0.752 ± 0.030 (0.378-0.698), and nucleotide diversity was 0.01073 ± 0.00087 (0.00412-0.01123).
The finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) is a small cetacean whose survival is largely affected by human activity. The characteristics and structures of 3 populations in China and 4 to 5 populations in Japan have been well documented, although their history and origins remain poorly understood. In this study, nested clade phylogeographical analysis was applied to mtDNA sequences from finless porpoises to delineate the historical factors shaping the divergence pattern of this species.