Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a thermally dimorphic and a human pathogenic fungus. Our group has partially sequenced its transcriptome and generated a database of mycelial and yeast PbAESTs (P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tags). In the present review we describe the identification of PbAESTs encoding molecular chaperones. These proteins, involved in protein folding and renaturation, are also implicated in several other biological processes, where the dimorphic transition is of particular interest.
Open reading frames in the transcriptome of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were screened for potential glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, which are a functionally and structurally diverse family of post-translationally modified molecules found in a variety of eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated that various GPI anchor sequences can affect the localization of these proteins in the plasma membrane or the cell wall.
The cell wall of a human pathogenic fungus is in contact with the host, serves as a barrier against host defense mechanisms and harbors most fungal antigens. In addition, cell wall biosynthesis pathways have been recognized as essential to viability and as specific drug targets. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is a dimorphic fungus that presents mycelium morphology in the free environment and causes infection in a yeast form. The morphogenetic conversion is correlated with changes in the cell wall composition, organization and structure.
Annotation of the transcriptome of the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis has set the grounds for a global understanding of its metabolism in both mycelium and yeast forms. This fungus is able to use the main carbohydrate sources, including starch, and it can store reduced carbons in the form of glycogen and trehalose; these provide energy reserves that are relevant for metabolic adaptation, protection against stress and infectivity mechanisms. The glyoxylate cycle, which is also involved in pathogenicity, is present in this fungus.
The translational and post-translational modification machineries of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis were assessed by means of comparative analyses of PbAESTs (P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tags) with sequences deposited on different databases. Of the 79 sequences corresponding to cytosolic ribosomal proteins, we were able to find 78 in the P. brasiliensis transcriptome. Nineteen of the 27 Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to translation initiation were also found. All eukaryotic elongation factors were detected in P.
The RNA biogenesis machinery of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was assessed by comparative analyses of PbAESTs (P. brasiliensis assembled expressed sequence tags (ESTs)) with sequences from Saccharomyces cerevisiae MIPS database. PbAESTs related to almost all categories of S. cerevisiae RNA biogenesis were found. Two of the 12 S.
The human fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is an ascomycete that displays a temperature-dependent dimorphic transition, appearing as a mycelium at 22°C and as a yeast at 37°C, this latter being the virulent form. We report on the in silico search made of the P.
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the etiological agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, an endemic mycosis of Latin America. This fungus presents a dimorphic character; it grows as a mycelium at room temperature, but it is isolated as yeast from infected individuals. It is believed that the transition from mycelium to yeast is important for the infective process.
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, the etiologic agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, is a dimorphic fungus, which is found as mycelia at 22-26ºC and as yeasts at 37ºC. A remarkable feature common to several pathogenic fungi is their ability to differentiate from mycelium to yeast morphologies, or vice-versa. Although P. brasiliensis is a recognized pathogen for humans, little is known about its virulence genes. In this sense, we performed a search for putative virulence genes in the P. brasiliensis transcriptome.