Our objective was to examine the genetic diversity of central and peripheral populations of Toona ciliata var. pubescens, to elucidate whether the central-peripheral hypothesis applies to these populations. We analyzed 392 individuals from nine natural populations using eight pairs of polymorphic SSR primers. The results showed that the mean numbers of observed and expected alleles in peripheral populations were higher than in central populations. Common widespread and rare local (RL) alleles were observed in all populations.