Plant breeding

Evaluation of grain yield in sorghum hybrids under water stress

C. B. Menezes, Saldanha, D. C., Santos, C. V., Andrade, L. C., Júlio, M. P. Mingote, Portugal, A. F., and Tardin, F. D., Evaluation of grain yield in sorghum hybrids under water stress, vol. 14, pp. 12675-12683, 2015.

Sorghum grain yield can be significantly affected by climatic changes, especially drought and high temperature. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hybrids of grain sorghum grown under normal irrigation conditions or water stress in order to select those likely to be more tolerant of drought. Forty-nine hybrids were grown in a randomized block design experiment, with three replications. The plots consisted of four rows of 5 m length. Grain yield, weight of 1000 grains, harvest index, days to flowering, and plant height were measured.

Multivariate analysis of backcross progeny of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) for pre-breeding genotype selection

C. A. F. Melo, Souza, M. M., Sousa, A. G. R., Viana, A. P., and Santos, E. A., Multivariate analysis of backcross progeny of Passiflora L. (Passifloraceae) for pre-breeding genotype selection, vol. 14, pp. 15376-15389, 2015.

The Ward-MLM procedure was used to evaluate genetic variation in four backcross progenies and in their parents, hybrid F1 HD13 and donor parent Passiflora sublanceolata. Sixteen quantitative descriptors and five qualitative characteristics of relevance to ornamental flower production were assessed. Using the pseudo-F and pseudo-T² criteria, we identified four groups among these plants in two evaluation periods. In both evaluations, the BC1 plants showed greater dissimilarity to their recurrent parent, but showed high genetic similarity with the P. sublanceolata parent.

Genome-wide prediction of maize single-cross performance, considering non-additive genetic effects

J. P. R. Santos, Pereira, H. D., Von Pinho, R. G., Pires, L. P. M., Camargos, R. B., and Balestre, M., Genome-wide prediction of maize single-cross performance, considering non-additive genetic effects, vol. 14, pp. 18471-18484, 2015.

The prediction of single-cross hybrids in maize is a promising technique for optimizing the use of financial resources in a breeding program. This study aimed to evaluate Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Predictors models for hybrid prediction and compare them with the Bayesian Ridge Regression, Bayes A, Bayesian LASSO, Bayes C, Bayes B, and Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces Regression models, with inclusion or absence of non-additive effects under three heritability scenarios.

Heterosis for the improvement of yield in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]

P. A. Tantasawat, Khajudparn, P., Prajongjai, T., and Poolsawat, O., Heterosis for the improvement of yield in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], vol. 14, pp. 10444-10451, 2015.

Heterotic effects of mungbean hybrids from 25 crosses between parents differing in 9 agronomic and physiological traits were evaluated for various selected traits and seed yield. Significant heteroses were observed in most selected traits, except for the number of seeds per plant. When the heterosis of seed yield was evaluated in these hybrids, significant heterosis was found in 9 crosses, which were selected based on the number of pods per plant, number of clusters per plant, pod length, number of seeds per pod, total dry matter, and root length density.

Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale

R. M. Giacomin, Assis, R., Brammer, S. P., A. Junior, N., and Da-Silva, P. R., Backcrossing to increase meiotic stability in triticale, vol. 14, pp. 11271-11280, 2015.

Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is an intergeneric hybrid derived from a cross between wheat and rye. As a newly created allopolyploid, the plant shows instabilities during the meiotic process, which may result in the loss of fertility. This genomic instability has hindered the success of triticale-breeding programs. Therefore, strategies should be developed to obtain stable triticale lines for use in breeding. In some species, backcrossing has been effective in increasing the meiotic stability of lineages.

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