Isoflavonoids and the related synthesis enzyme, chalcone isomerase 1 (CHI1), are unique in the Leguminosae, with diverse biological functions. Among the Leguminosae, the soybean is an important oil, protein crop, and model plant. In this study, we aimed to detect the generation pattern of Leguminosae CHI1. Genome-wide sequence analysis of CHI in 3 Leguminosae and 3 other closely related model plants was performed; the expression levels of soybean chalcone isomerases were also analyzed.
The critical role that the major histocompatibility complex plays in the immune recognition of parasites and pathogens makes its evolutionary dynamics exceptionally relevant to ecology, population biology, and conservation studies. The black muntjac is a rare deer endemic to a small mountainous region in eastern China. We found that this species has two DQA loci through cDNA expression and sequence variation analysis.
Short-type peptidoglycan (PGN)-recognition protein 1 (PGLYRP1), an innate immunity protein that directly breaks down the structure of microbial cell wall PGNs, plays an important role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory diseases.
Adaptive variation in the melanocortin 1-receptor gene (MC1R), a key locus in melanogenesis, has been identified in some species of rodents. However, in others, MC1R has no causative role in pigmentation phenotypes despite their coat color variation. In this study, we characterized the rates and patterns of MC1R nucleotide and amino acid sequence evolution and, particularly, selective pressures in the separated domains of the protein using a comparative analysis of 43 species representing three major lineages of rodents with variable coat colors.