Lactoferrin (Lf) is an iron-binding glycoprotein that is produced by mucosal epithelial cells in mammals. Lf has non-immune natural defense functions and biological functions in addition to and distinct from its role in regulating inflammatory responses. Lf also improved some physiological and immunological parameters. Lf is a biomarker for monitoring medical treatment in inflammatory bowel diseases. Current LF research focuses on iron absorption, antimicrobial activity, and the modulation of iron metabolism during inflammation.
Interkeukin-8 (IL-8) is an important inflammatory mediator. It is an angiogenic factor associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis. To date, research on IL-8 has been limited to its role as an indicator of inflammation. There has been no systematic research concerning IL-8 expression levels in the mouse mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation. Mouse mammary gland samples were collected on days 1, 6, 12, 18 of pregnancy and of lactation (6 mice per group). The expression levels of IL-8 mRNA were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, with GAPDH as an internal control.
We compared levels of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) mRNA expression in mouse medulla at different stages of pregnancy and lactation. Mouse medulla samples were collected on days 6, 12 and 18 of pregnancy and lactation, respectively (six per group), for mRNA. Expression levels of PrRP mRNA in the medulla were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase as a control. PrRP mRNA was highly expressed in mouse medulla oblongata on day 6 of pregnancy (0.53), followed by 0.43 at lactation day 6, and 0.42 at lactation day 12.
Leptin is expressed in various tissues, suggesting that this protein is effective not only at the central nervous system level, but also peripherically. Recent studies have shown leptin production by other tissues, including the placenta, stomach, and mammary tissues, but there is no information available concerning expression levels of leptin in the rat mammary gland at different activation stages. We used semi-quantitative RT-PCR to investigate leptin mRNA expression levels in the rat mammary gland at different activity stages.