Glucose transporter proteins 2 and 4 (GLUT2 and GLUT4) play important roles in glucose transport and energy metabolism. Changes in the levels of GLUT2 and GLUT4 mRNA were measured in longissimus dorsi muscle from the lean Yorkshire and fat Tibetan pig breeds at six different time points (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months) with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The results showed that GLUT2 and GLUT4 mRNA were abundantly expressed in the longissimus dorsi muscle and that the developmental expression patterns were similar in both breeds.
Quantitative real-time PCR
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an important adaptor protein involved in toll-like receptor signaling pathways. In this study, a cDNA library from Collichthys lucidus was constructed using the SMART technique. A complete cDNA sequence showing high identity with the conserved sequence of the MyD88 gene was cloned from the cDNA library using expressed sequence tag analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends, and then subjected to further investigation. The full-length cDNA of MyD88 from C.
Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and can be induced by different kinds of environmental and physiological stress. Thus far, the role of the GRP78 gene in thermotolerance in chickens has not been investigated.
Calmodulin (CALM), a calcium-binding protein, is expressed in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis; it plays a pivotal role in the reproductive system by regulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling. Downstream of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal signaling pathways, liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) is involved in female gonadal hormone synthesis. In the chicken, although the two genes are known to be associated with reproductive traits, the interaction between gonadotropins and gonadal steroids remains unclear.
The study of gene expression in plants is fundamental, and understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in important biological processes, such as biochemical pathways or signaling that are used or manipulated in improvement programs, are key for the production of high-quality soybean seeds. Reports related to gene expression of lignin in seeds are scarce in the literature.
Obtaining quantitative data concerning gene expression is important for understanding milk synthesis in mammary glands. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an efficient tool to calculate gene expression; however, it is necessary to find valid reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data. We applied the geNorm software to eight commonly used reference genes to identify the most stable and optimal genes for the mouse mammary gland. Based on this analysis, HPRT, RPL and GAPDH are the most appropriate reference genes for data normalization.
The functions of distinct isoforms of solute carrier family 27 transporters (SLC27A1-6), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA, ACACB), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1-4), fatty acid desaturase (FADS1-3), LPIN (LPIN1-3), insulin-induced gene (INSIG1, 2), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator1 (PPARGC1A, B) were studied in the mouse mammary gland from pregnancy to lactation. The relative mRNA abundance and percent change in real-time PCR were determined.
Quantification of Salmonella in asymptomatic carrier animals can be used to assess microbial risk and monitor the level of contamination in domestic animals used for food production. We examined the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of real-time qPCR, without pre-enrichment or selective enrichment stages, for the quantification of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in resistant mice, as a model of asymptomatic carrier animal. The results were compared with those obtained by traditional bacteriological culture methods, the gold standard test.