This study aimed to discuss the effect and mechanism of glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) on transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-induced lens epithelial cell (LEC) apoptosis and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) to prevent and control cataracts. Healthy rabbits (4 weeks old) were randomly selected, and LECs from their lenses were cultured in vitro.
Reactive oxygen species
Alpha (a)-particle radiation has been thoroughly studied in the occupational and residential environments, but biological mechanisms induced by a-particle radiation on plants are not clearly understood. In this study, radiation effects were examined using different total doses (1, 10, 100 Gy, respectively) of 241Am, a-particle on Arabidopsis embryos. No significant difference in the germination percentage was observed between the 3 levels of doses and the control.
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) has been shown to protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced cell apoptosis by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activating phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. We investigated the downstream pathways of PI3K/Akt involved in PQQ protection of glutamate-injured hippocampal neurons. Western blot analysis indicated that PQQ treatment following glutamate stimulation triggers phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, accompanied by maintenance of Akt activation.