Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae), popularly known as espinheira-santa, is a native plant from the Atlantic forest and is commonly used in popular medicine to treat inflammation and as an abortifacient. To evaluate the effects of M. ilicifolia on pregnant rats during the organogenic period (T1) or throughout the gestational period (T2), an extract obtained using an acetone-water mixture at a 70:30 ratio was administered via gavage at a dose of 15.11 mg·kg-1·day-1 over 2 treatment periods (T1 and T2).
The continuous trait age at subsequent rebreeding (ASR) was evaluated using survival analysis in Nellore breed cows that conceived for the first time at approximately 14 months of age. This methodology was chosen because the restricted breeding season produces censored data. The dataset contained 2885 records of ASR (in days). Records of females that did not produce calves in the following year after being exposed to a sire were considered censored (48.3% of the total).
There has been much speculation about which phenotypic traits serve as reliable indicators of productivity in queen honeybees (Apis mellifera). To investigate the predictive value of queen body weight on colony development and quality, we compared colonies in which queens weighed less than 180 mg to those in which queens weighed more than 200 mg. Both groups contained naturally mated and instrumentally inseminated queens. Colonies were evaluated on the basis of performance quality, growth rate, and queen longevity.
Survival or longevity is an economically important trait in beef cattle. The main inconvenience for its inclusion in selection criteria is delayed recording of phenotypic data and the high computational demand for including survival in proportional hazard models. Thus, identification of a longevity-correlated trait that could be recorded early in life would be very useful for selection purposes.
Acid phosphatases (AcPs) are known to provide phosphate to tissues that have high energy requirements, especially during development, growth and maturation. During spermatogenesis AcP activity is manifested in heterophagous lysosomes of Sertoli cells. This phagocytic function appears to be hormone-independent.
We evaluated genetic and environmental factors affecting age at first farrowing of sows in the Brazilian southeast. For this purpose, 466 observations regarding the age at first farrowing were made for Dalland-C40© animals belonging to two herds. The effects of the environmental factors on this trait were assessed by means of a model that included, as random effects, the influence of the sow’s father and mother and, as fixed effects, the influence the year of birth, the herd and the birth season, along with the covariable litter size at birth.
The observation of bovine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms allows the separation of American zebu cattle, according to its maternal lineage ancestry, into two groups: one with Bos indicus mtDNA and other with Bos taurus mtDNA. The aim of the present study was to determine the productive and reproductive differences between these two groups, in a Guzerat dairy herd. The genotyping of a sample of 56 animals allowed the categorization of most of the 3835 animals in the pedigree file.
Varroa destructor reproductive success is considered an important character for determining the resistance of honey bees to this mite parasite. However, most of the published data are not comparable due to the different methods of ascertaining and reporting reproduction. A recently published technique that involves reconstructing mite families in older worker brood gives repeatable and reliable parameters. This methodology was used to compare various categories of reproduction of approximately 1,000 V.
Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Brazil are tolerant of infestations with the exotic ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor (Mesostigmata: Varroidae), while the European honey bees used in apiculture throughout most of the world are severely affected. Africanized honey bees are normally kept in hives with both naturally built small width brood cells and with brood cells made from European-sized foundation, yet we know that comb cell size has an effect on varroa reproductive behavior.