Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder strongly associated with dopamine dysregulation. Catechol-O-methyl-transferase (COMT) is a candidate gene for schizophrenia that encodes an enzyme involved in the metabolic inactivation of dopamine. The COMT Val158Met polymorphism has been associated with schizophrenia and has significant inter- and intra-ethnic variations. We examined a possible association between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and schizophrenia in Saudis, taking into account gender and functional symptoms.
Numerous studies have evaluated the association between Ser311Cys (rs1801028, C>G) polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene and schizophrenia risk. However, the specific association is still controversial. We examined whether DRD2 Ser311Cys polymorphism confers schizophrenia risk in Asian populations. Sixteen studies were retrieved reporting on a total of 2268 schizophrenia patients and 2423 healthy controls.
A number of studies have pointed to the association of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa) with schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these two genes are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia in the Malay population. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms Val66Met of BDNF, -2036C>G and g.1238delG of DARPP-32 were genotyped in the Malay population in 200 patients with schizophrenia and 256 healthy controls.
The serotoninergic system has been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia and other behavioral disorders. Association studies have focused on the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2) and the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2A gene (5-HTR2A). We genotyped two single-nucleotide polymorphisms, A1438G of 5-HTR2A and intronic rs1386494 of TPH2 in the Malay population, using a sample size of 289 schizophrenic patients and 130 healthy controls. We found a significant association of A1438G of 5-HTR2A with schizophrenia in Malays.
Molecular components of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) may play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated an association between DRD3 Ser9Gly and cathechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT, SNP = rs165656) polymorphisms and schizophrenia but the results were inconclusive. We investigated this apparent association between Ser9Gly (A/G) polymorphism and an intronic SNP (dbSNP or rs165656) in 261 Malay patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 216 controls, using PCR-RFLP.
Reelin is an extracellular signaling protein that plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system. Post-mortem studies have shown lower reelin protein levels in the brains of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared with controls. Genetic studies have also shown that mutations in the reelin gene (RELN) increase the risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.