Thirty-nine microsatellite loci that are highly conserved in red deer, sika deer, reindeer, Soay sheep, and other artiodactyls were tested in two vulnerable and endangered Neotropical deer (pudu: Pudu puda and huemul: Hippocamelus bisulcus) with the aim of producing a standardized set of markers that can be used successfully in noninvasive samples from these species.
Short tandem repeat
The aim of this study is to use Y-chromosome gene polymorphism method to investigate regional differences in genetic variation and population evolution history of the Chinese native cattle breeds. Six Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) loci (UMN0929, UMN0108, UMN0920, INRA124, UMN2404, and UMN0103) were analyzed using 1016 healthy and heterogenetic males and 90 females of 9 native cattle breeds (Qinchuan, Jinnan, Zaosheng, Luxi, Nanyang, Jiaxian, Dabieshan, Yanbian, and Menggu) in China.
Two hundred and sixty unrelated subjects who asked for paternity testing at two Bolivian Laboratories in La Paz and Santa Cruz were studied. The loci D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, TH01, TPOX, and CSF1PO were typed from blood samples, amplifying DNA by polymerase chain reactions and electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were estimated by simple counting and the unbiased heterozygosity was calculated. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was studied and gene frequencies were compared between the two samples.