Acute rejection (AR) recurrence after liver transplantation (LT) is one of the major complications that leads to chronic graft dysfunction. It has been reported that the polymorphisms in some cytokine genes are associated with human liver allograft rejection. This study mainly investigated the associations between polymorphisms in the genes encoding interleukin-10 (IL10), transforming growth factor-b1 (TGFB1), and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF), and the risk of AR recurrence.
Single nucleotide polymorphism
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential elements of the innate immune response to different infections including the infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLRs such as TLR4 1063A/G and 1363C/T have been found to be associated with changes in CD4 count, viral load (VL), and disease progression during HIV infection. However, the association of these SNPs with the pathogenesis during HIV infection is controversial.