In countries containing a mega diversity of wildlife, such as Brazil, identifying and characterizing biological diversity is a continuous process for the scientific community, even in face of technological and scientific advances. This activity demands initiatives for the taxonomic identification of highly diverse groups, such as stingless bees, including molecular analysis strategies. This type of bee is distributed in all of the Brazilian states, with the highest species diversity being found in the State of Amazônia.
Myostatin, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily member, has been well documented as a negative regulator of muscle growth and development. Myostatin, which has 376 amino acids, is synthesized as a precursor protein. Polymorphism of the myostatin gene in Makoei sheep was investigated by PCR and single-strand conformation polymorphism technique (SSCP). Genomic DNA of 92 sheep was isolated from whole blood. A 417-bp myostatin intron I segment was amplified by standard PCR, using locus-specific primers.
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis was carried out on representative individuals of wild Haliotis asinina using 64 primer combinations. Nine polymorphic AFLPs were cloned and sequenced. Sequence-specific primers were designed from six AFLP-derived fragments. Three sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers (HaSCAR320, HaSCAR295, HaSCAR327) were selected for genotyping of 8-month-old domesticated stocks of H.
A molecular maker for authenticating species origin of the stingless bee (Trigona collina) was developed. Initially, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis was made of 11 stingless bee species using 64 primer combinations. A 316-bp band found only in T. collina was cloned and sequenced. A primer pair (CUTc1-F/R) was designed and tested for species-specificity in 15 stingless bee species (239 nests). The expected 259-bp fragment was consistently amplified in all T. collina individuals (134/134 nests, 100%).
The effects of induced mutation produced by five different doses of gamma irradiation (20, 25, 30, 40, and 45 Gy) were determined using molecular approaches in Vitis vinifera cultivars, namely Thompson Seedless (Sultani Çekirdeksiz) (progenitor of seedless vinifera variety) and Kalecik Karası (one of the best quality wine grape variety of Turkey). Mutant candidates were selected through morphological observations of mutation-induced phenotypic changes during the first, second and third vegetation periods after radiation applications.