The interleukin-1α (IL-1α) gene appears to play a role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the IL-1 rs1800587 gene polymorphism to susceptibility to T1D in Chinese children. This case-control study included 332 Chinese children with T1D and 332 healthy controls. Identification of genetic variants of rs1800587 in the IL-1α gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction amplification. The IL-1α rs1800587 polymorphism demonstrated a significant association with T1D risk.