Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation of the large intestine. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of two polymorphisms in STAT3 with the risk of UC development in the Chinese Han population. This is a hospital-based case-control study involving 56 UC patients and 274 controls. Genotyping was performed using the polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) method. Statistical analyses were conducted using logistic regression and genotype risk score.