Research Article

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Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide, and various methods exist for selection, propagation, and cultivation. The entire Chinese cabbage genome has been sequenced, and the heat shock transcription factor family (Hsfs) has been found to play a central role in plant growth and development and in the ... more

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endosperm; Gene expression; Hormone; Maize; Sugar

Starch is the major storage product in the endosperm of cereals. Its synthesis is closely related to sucrose metabolism. In our previous study, we found that the expression of most of the genes involved in starch synthesis might be regulated by sugars and hormones in the maize endosperm. However, little is known regarding the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in sucrose ... more

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Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content is dependent on the energy requirements of tissues. To date, no comprehensive study has been conducted to examine mtDNA copy number variations in pigs. In the current study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the mtDNA copy number in 15 pig tissue types at 5 growth stages from embryo to adult. Observable differences in mtDNA ... more

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The ribosomal protein L9 (RPL9), a component of the large subunit of the ribosome, has an unusual structure, comprising two compact globular domains connected by an α-helix; it interacts with 23 S rRNA. To obtain information about rpL9 of Ailuropoda melanoleuca (the giant panda) we designed primers based on the known mammalian nucleotide sequence. RT-PCR and PCR ... more

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Cloning; Expression; Major histocompatibility complex; Stone flounder

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes play important recognition roles in the immune system in vertebrates. We cloned the MHC class II genes A and B in the stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus). The full-length cDNA and DNA sequences of both genes were obtained, and their characteristic motifs were analyzed. The DNA sequence of stone flounder MHC ... more

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Cloning; Litopenaeus vannamei; Macrophage migration inhibitory factor

The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an important proinflammatory cytokine that mediates both innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we identified a homolog of MIF in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The MIF cDNA contained a 363-bp open reading frame encoding a 120-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 13.442 kDa and a theoretical ... more

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